Haplogroup A2a4 is a Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is a young branch on the tree, and the woman who founded it lived in a Native North American population between very recent generations and 800 years ago. (Achilli et al., 2013)
Information on this lineage comes from one study. In it, the researchers found members of the line in the Navajo. They also found it in the general population of the Southwestern states, New Mexico and Arizona, and in Chihuahua, Mexico.
In the Geno 2 data set, participants from the line are from the United States and Colombia.
Achilli et al., 2013 links the spread of the line to the historic migration of Athabaskan language speakers from Canada. With this in mind, it is interesting that this young lineage has reached as far south as Colombia.
mtDNA Haplogroup A2a4 Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|16||A2a4||G5460A T16093C||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A2a4||G5460A T16093C||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup A2a4 Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5020746||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a4||-||none||A2a4:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5020747||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a4||-||none||A2a4:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5020748||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a4||-||none||A2a4:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5020749||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a4||-||none||A2a4:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5020750||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a4||-||none||A2a4:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5020751||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a4||-||none||A2a4:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d|
|Hap5020752||-||Achilli et al., 2013||A2a4||-||none||A2a4:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 9673|
Sources & Resources
- Achilli, A., Perego, U.A., Lancioni, H., Olivieri, A., Gandini, F., Kashani, B.H., Battaglia, V., Grugni, V., Angerhofer, N., Rogers, M.P. and Herrera, R.J. (2013). Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(35), 14308-14313.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Peoples: Navajo | Places: Arizona, Chihuahua, Colombia, Mexico, and New Mexico
Last Updated: [lastupdated]