Age: 4,629.4 ± 4,092.5; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b), 4,000 years ± 1,425 years (Achilli et al., 2013)
Origin: Siberian Asia
Mutations: C3330T C16192T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: A2
Descendant branch(s): A2a1 A2a2 A2a3 A2a4 A2a5


Haplogroup A2a is an Northeastern Siberian and Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

Information on this line comes from five studies. In most cases, those tested are Eskimo type peoples. Two studies have found it in the Chukotka (Ingman et al., 2000 and Volodko et al., 2008). Others found it in the Chukchi (Derenko et al., 2007) and the Inuit (Gilbert et al., 2008). In contrast, Achilli et al., 2013 tested two members of the lineage in the Dogrib (Tłı̨chǫ) peoples who are Na Dane.

Interestingly, one person in the Geno 2 data set from this lineage traces their maternal origins to Denmark.

Achilli et al., 2013 suggests that the history of this line’s migrations is complex with both an ancient and more recent bidirectional migrations between Siberia and far northern Canada.

mtDNA Haplogroup A2a Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01A2a3330 16192Released 27 Aug 2008
02A2a3330 16192Released 14 Oct 2008
03A2a3330 (16192)Released 1 Mar 2009
04A2a3330 (16192)Released 10 May 2009
05A2a3330 (16192)Released 8 Jul 2009
06A2a3330 (16192)Released 28 Sep 2009
07A2a3330 (16192)Released 10 Nov 2009
08A2a3330 (16192)Released 21 Mar 2010
09A2a3330Released 20 Jun 2010
10A2a3330Released 10 Aug 2010
11A2a3330Released 7 Feb 2011
12A2a3330Released 20 Jul 2011
13A2a3330Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14A2aC3330TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15A2aC3330TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16A2aC3330T C16192TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17A2aC3330T C16192TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup A2a Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5009185Gilbert et al., 2008noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7633, 16519
Hap5009186Gilbert et al., 2008noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7633, 16519
Hap5010045Ingman et al., 2000noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 14560, 16519
Hap5010046Ingman et al., 2000noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519
Hap5010047Ingman et al., 2000noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 14560, 16519
Hap5015505Volodko et al., 2008noneA2a:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6018, 16176, 16519
Hap5015506Volodko et al., 2008noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 14162, 16519
Hap5015514Volodko et al., 2008noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d
Hap5015789Derenko et al., 2007A2a:11914A2a:153R, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519
Hap5015794Derenko et al., 2007noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519
Hap5020744Achilli et al., 2013noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16519
Hap5020753Achilli et al., 2013noneA2a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 8613

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10041536United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10041537United StatesUnited States TerritoriesUnited States TerritoriesUnited States Territories
Hap10041538United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10041539United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10041540United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: Chukotka, Chukotkan Inuit, Dogrib (Tłı̨chǫ), Eskimo, Inuit, and Na Dane | Places: Northeast Siberia

Last Updated: Last updated: August 17, 2016 at 21:57 pm

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