A2

Summary

Age: 15,644.6 ± 1,757.7; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: East Asia or The Americas
Variants: T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: A
Descendant branch(s): A2a A2aa A2ab A2ac A2ad A2ae A2af A2ag A2ah A2ai A2aj A2ak A2al A2am A2an A2ao A2ap A2aq A2b A2c A2d A2e A2f A2g A2h A2i A2j A2k A2l A2m A2n A2o A2p A2q A2r A2s A2t A2u A2v A2w A2x A2y A2z

YFull Info

Name: -

Age: -

Expansion: -

Variants: -

Note: This information does not imply an endorcement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.

Background

Haplogroup A2 is an Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is the daughter of the A branch. The woman who founded this line lived about 16,000 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).

Origin

The line’s likely origin is far East Asia. It could also be the Americas. Most members of this branch though traveled to the Americas long ago and founded Native populations in North and South America. If the origin is in the Americas, then members of the line have traveled back into Asia.

Age

Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the A2 lineage between 13,900 and 17,400 years ago. This means the line was born at the end of the Upper Paleolithic or beginning of the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools. However, tool craftsmanship was fairly advanced.

Ancient DNA

One ancient DNA sample from South America belongs to this branch. It is the Ice Maiden, Juanita. Her burial site was in Peru. (Wilson et al., 2007)

There are also several A samples from ancient DNA extracted from teeth found in northwestern North America. (Malhi et al., 2004) Because they were found in the Americas, they were likely A2.

  • Northern Plateau
    • Plateau Salish (Salisham language family) 3 out of 11 samples dating to about 200 BP
    • Vantage 2 out 7 samples dating to between 500 and 1500 BP
  • Southern Plateau
    • Wishram (Chinook language family) 7 out of 33 samples dating to about 200 BP

Timeline

Coming Soon

Modern Populations

Today, the A2 line is present across most of the Americas. It has high frequency peaks in Alaska, the North American Southwest, and in some peoples of South America. Though mainly Native American, it is present in groups from Northeastern Asia.

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Information

This information comes from the 2012 update of the National Geographic Genographic Project website.

Map

mtDNA Haplogroup A2 - Geno 2.0
mtDNA Haplogroup A2 – Geno 2.0 | Author: Balanovsky, O. et al., 2011 | Copyright: National Geographic

Text

Haplogroup: A2
Age: Over 15,000 Years Ago
Origin: Asia/Beringia
Blurb: This lineage was born in Siberia just before groups of migrants traveled over the icy land bridge to the Americas. Moving with these new world explorers, A2 helped settle the Americas.
Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup A2 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Variants (Mutations) Notes
01 A2 146 152 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 A2 146 152 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 A2 146 152 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 A2 146 152 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 10 May 2009
05 A2 146 152 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 A2 146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 A2 T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 A2 T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T Released 30 Sep 2012
16 A2 T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T Released 19 Feb 2014
17 A2 T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup A2 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Origin Publication Hg BLD16 Hg BLD17 Hg YFull Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5001440 - Behar et al., 2012b A2 - A2:16362 A2:315.1C, 466, 14025, 15670, 16098, 16106, 16519
Hap5007083 - Fagundes et al., 2008 A2 - none A2:93R, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3435, 14668, 16368, 16519
Hap5007089 - Fagundes et al., 2008 A2 - none A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3435, 11288, 12406, 14178, 14755, 14861, 16519
Hap5010389 - Just et al., 2008 A2 - none A2:315.1C, 523-524d, 709, 4122, 10586
Hap5010395 - Just et al., 2008 A2 - none A2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010396 - Just et al., 2008 A2 - none A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010397 - Just et al., 2008 A2 - none A2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010399 - Just et al., 2008 A2 - none A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010428 - Just et al., 2008 A2 - A2:152 A2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3693, 4491, 11009, 15032
Hap5017625 - A2 - A2:153, 16111 A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 3339, 16519
Hap5017656 - A2 - A2:153, 16111 A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 3339, 14280T, 16519
Hap5017657 - A2 - A2:16187 A2:143, 315.1CC, 523-524d, 2442, 4052, 13708
Hap5017665 - A2 - A2:153, 16290 A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 2971T, 3316, 8681, 10370
Hap5017667 - A2 - none A2:56.1C, 214, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5267, 16326, 16519
Hap5017673 - A2 - A2:16111, 16311 A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7389, 7669, 16075, 16519
Hap5017674 - A2 - A2:16111, 16311 A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7389, 7669, 16519
Hap5017698 - A2 - A2:16319 A2:315.1C, 523-524d, 3398, 6752, 7196A, 14999T, 16179, 16519
Hap5022219 Zheng et al., 2012 A2 none A2:523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5022220 Zheng et al., 2012 A2 none A2:384, 523-524d, 4011, 11653, 13731, 15586, 16519
Hap5022221 Zheng et al., 2012 A2 none A2:315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5022222 Zheng et al., 2012 A2 none A2:523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5022223 Zheng et al., 2012 A2 none A2:179, 385, 523-524d, 16218
Hap5022224 Zheng et al., 2012 A2 none A2:214, 523-524d, 5267, 9327, 16326
Hap5022225 Zheng et al., 2012 A2 none A2:523-524d, 5114, 16145, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Country
Mother's
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Maternal
Origin
Hap10040961 Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina
Hap10040962 Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina
Hap10040963 Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina
Hap10040964 Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10040965 Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10040966 United States Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10040967 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040968 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040969 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040970 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040971 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040972 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040973 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040974 Spain Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10040975 Peru Peru Brazil Brazil
Hap10040976 Portugal Portugal Brazil Brazil
Hap10040977 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040978 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040979 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040980 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040981 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040982 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040983 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040984 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10040985 Canada Canada Canada Canada

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Keywords

Peoples: Native Americans | Places: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, North America, Peru, Puerto Rico, South America, Uruguay, and Venezuela

Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 13:10 pm

2 thoughts on “A2”

  1. I’m from North Louisiana, a very small town that was once a Spanish Mission so our ancestors are mostly Spanish and Native American mixed.
    My father’s mother is 38% Native, 32% Spanish and Portuguese, 20% Broadly Southern European, 5%Sub Saharan African, Western Asian, North African and 5% unassigned.
    Her maternal haplogroup is C1d and I was looking up all the relatives on 23&Me that are from this same town and I found maternal haplogroups A2 for four people, D1 for two, B2 for twelve of them, C1d for three,C1c for seven of them, a C1c2, C4, and B2b.
    Is that fairly normal? I looked up 50 people from here and that’s what I got plus a V and an H

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