Haplogroup A2 is an Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is the daughter of the A branch. The woman who founded this line lived about 16,000 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).
The line’s likely origin is far East Asia. It could also be the Americas. Most members of this branch though traveled to the Americas long ago and founded Native populations in North and South America. If the origin is in the Americas, then members of the line have traveled back into Asia.
Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the A2 lineage between 13,900 and 17,400 years ago. This means the line was born at the end of the Upper Paleolithic or beginning of the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools. However, tool craftsmanship was fairly advanced.
One ancient DNA sample from South America belongs to this branch. It is the Ice Maiden, Juanita. Her burial site was in Peru. (Wilson et al., 2007)
There are also several A samples from ancient DNA extracted from teeth found in northwestern North America. (Malhi et al., 2004) Because they were found in the Americas, they were likely A2.
- Northern Plateau
- Plateau Salish (Salisham language family) 3 out of 11 samples dating to about 200 BP
- Vantage 2 out 7 samples dating to between 500 and 1500 BP
- Southern Plateau
- Wishram (Chinook language family) 7 out of 33 samples dating to about 200 BP
Today, the A2 line is present across most of the Americas. It has high frequency peaks in Alaska, the North American Southwest, and in some peoples of South America. Though mainly Native American, it is present in groups from Northeastern Asia.
National Geographic Geno 2.0 Information
This information comes from the 2012 update of the National Geographic Genographic Project website.
mtDNA Haplogroup A2 Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||A2||146 152 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||A2||146 152 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||A2||146 152 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||A2||146 152 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||A2||146 152 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||A2||146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||A2||T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||A2||T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||A2||T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A2||T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup A2 Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5001440||-||Behar et al., 2012b||A2||-||A2:16362||A2:315.1C, 466, 14025, 15670, 16098, 16106, 16519|
|Hap5007083||-||Fagundes et al., 2008||A2||-||none||A2:93R, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3435, 14668, 16368, 16519|
|Hap5007089||-||Fagundes et al., 2008||A2||-||none||A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3435, 11288, 12406, 14178, 14755, 14861, 16519|
|Hap5010389||-||Just et al., 2008||A2||-||none||A2:315.1C, 523-524d, 709, 4122, 10586|
|Hap5010395||-||Just et al., 2008||A2||-||none||A2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519|
|Hap5010396||-||Just et al., 2008||A2||-||none||A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519|
|Hap5010397||-||Just et al., 2008||A2||-||none||A2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519|
|Hap5010399||-||Just et al., 2008||A2||-||none||A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519|
|Hap5010428||-||Just et al., 2008||A2||-||A2:152||A2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3693, 4491, 11009, 15032|
|Hap5017625||-||A2||-||A2:153, 16111||A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 3339, 16519|
|Hap5017656||-||A2||-||A2:153, 16111||A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 3339, 14280T, 16519|
|Hap5017657||-||A2||-||A2:16187||A2:143, 315.1CC, 523-524d, 2442, 4052, 13708|
|Hap5017665||-||A2||-||A2:153, 16290||A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 2971T, 3316, 8681, 10370|
|Hap5017667||-||A2||-||none||A2:56.1C, 214, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5267, 16326, 16519|
|Hap5017673||-||A2||-||A2:16111, 16311||A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7389, 7669, 16075, 16519|
|Hap5017674||-||A2||-||A2:16111, 16311||A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7389, 7669, 16519|
|Hap5017698||-||A2||-||A2:16319||A2:315.1C, 523-524d, 3398, 6752, 7196A, 14999T, 16179, 16519|
|Hap5022219||Zheng et al., 2012||A2||none||A2:523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519|
|Hap5022220||Zheng et al., 2012||A2||none||A2:384, 523-524d, 4011, 11653, 13731, 15586, 16519|
|Hap5022221||Zheng et al., 2012||A2||none||A2:315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519|
|Hap5022222||Zheng et al., 2012||A2||none||A2:523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519|
|Hap5022223||Zheng et al., 2012||A2||none||A2:179, 385, 523-524d, 16218|
|Hap5022224||Zheng et al., 2012||A2||none||A2:214, 523-524d, 5267, 9327, 16326|
|Hap5022225||Zheng et al., 2012||A2||none||A2:523-524d, 5114, 16145, 16519|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Duggan, A.T., Harris, A.J., Marciniak, S., Marshall, I., Kuch, M., Kitchen, A., Renaud, G., Southon, J., Fuller, B., Young, J. and Fiedel, S. (2017). Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada. Current Biology, -, -.
- Fagundes, Nelson J.; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Smith, David Glenn G.; Silva, Wilson A.; Zago, Marco A.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Santos, Sidney E.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza L. & Bonatt (2008). Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas. American journal of human genetics, 82(3), 583-592.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Just, R.S., Diegoli, T.M., Saunier, J.L., Irwin, J.A. and Parsons, T.J. (2008). Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for 265 African American and U.S. “Hispanic” individuals. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 2(3), e45-e48.
- Morales‐Arce, A.Y., Snow, M.H., Kelley, J.H. and Anne Katzenberg, M. (2017). Ancient mitochondrial DNA and ancestry of Paquimé inhabitants, Casas Grandes (A.D. 1200–1450). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, in press, in press.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Zheng, H. X., Yan, S., Qin, Z. D., & Jin, L. (2012). MtDNA analysis of global populations support that major population expansions began before Neolithic Time. Nature Scientific Reports, 2, -.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Peoples: Native Americans | Places: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, North America, Peru, Puerto Rico, South America, Uruguay, and Venezuela
Last Updated: [lastupdated]