A2

Summary

Age: 15,644.6 ± 1,757.7; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: East Asia or The Americas
Mutations: T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: A
Descendant branch(s): A2a A2aa A2ab A2ac A2ad A2ae A2af A2ag A2ah A2ai A2aj A2ak A2al A2am A2an A2ao A2ap A2aq A2b A2c A2d A2e A2f A2g A2h A2i A2j A2k A2l A2m A2n A2o A2p A2q A2r A2s A2t A2u A2v A2w A2x A2y A2z

Background

Haplogroup A2 is an Native Americas branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is the daughter of the A branch. The woman who founded this line lived about 16,000 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).

Origin

The line’s likely origin is far East Asia. It could also be the Americas. Most members of this branch though traveled to the Americas long ago and founded Native populations in North and South America. If the origin is in the Americas, then members of the line have traveled back into Asia.

Age

Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the A2 lineage between 13,900 and 17,400 years ago. This means the line was born at the end of the Upper Paleolithic or beginning of the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools. However, tool craftsmanship was fairly advanced.

Ancient DNA

One ancient DNA sample from South America belongs to this branch. It is the Ice Maiden, Juanita. Her burial site was in Peru. (Wilson et al., 2007)

There are also several A samples from ancient DNA extracted from teeth found in northwestern North America. (Malhi et al., 2004) Because they were found in the Americas, they were likely A2.

  • Northern Plateau
    • Plateau Salish (Salisham language family) 3 out of 11 samples dating to about 200 BP
    • Vantage 2 out 7 samples dating to between 500 and 1500 BP
  • Southern Plateau
    • Wishram (Chinook language family) 7 out of 33 samples dating to about 200 BP

Timeline

Coming Soon

Modern Populations

Today, the A2 line is present across most of the Americas. It has high frequency peaks in Alaska, the North American Southwest, and in some peoples of South America. Though mainly Native American, it is present in groups from Northeastern Asia.

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Information

This information comes from the 2012 update of the National Geographic Genographic Project website.

Map

mtDNA Haplogroup A2 - Geno 2.0
mtDNA Haplogroup A2 – Geno 2.0 | Author: Balanovsky, O. et al., 2011 | Copyright: National Geographic

Text

Haplogroup: A2
Age: Over 15,000 Years Ago
Origin: Asia/Beringia
Blurb: This lineage was born in Siberia just before groups of migrants traveled over the icy land bridge to the Americas. Moving with these new world explorers, A2 helped settle the Americas.
Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup A2 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build#CalledMutationsNotes
01A2146 152 153 8027 12007 16111Released 27 Aug 2008
02A2146 152 153 8027 12007 16111Released 14 Oct 2008
03A2146 152 153 8027 12007 16111Released 1 Mar 2009
04A2146 152 153 8027 12007 16111Released 10 May 2009
05A2146 152 153 8027 12007 16111Released 8 Jul 2009
06A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 28 Sep 2009
07A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 10 Nov 2009
08A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 21 Mar 2010
09A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 20 Jun 2010
10A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 10 Aug 2010
11A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 7 Feb 2011
12A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 20 Jul 2011
13A2146 152! 153 8027 12007 16111Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14A2T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15A2T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16A2T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17A2T146C! C152T!! A153G G8027A G12007A C16111TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup A2 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5001440Behar et al., 2012bA2:16362A2:315.1C, 466, 14025, 15670, 16098, 16106, 16519
Hap5007083Fagundes et al., 2008noneA2:93R, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3435, 14668, 16368, 16519
Hap5007089Fagundes et al., 2008noneA2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3435, 11288, 12406, 14178, 14755, 14861, 16519
Hap5010389Just et al., 2008noneA2:315.1C, 523-524d, 709, 4122, 10586
Hap5010395Just et al., 2008noneA2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010396Just et al., 2008noneA2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010397Just et al., 2008noneA2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010399Just et al., 2008noneA2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5010428Just et al., 2008A2:152A2:309.1CN, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3693, 4491, 11009, 15032
Hap5017625A2:153, 16111A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 3339, 16519
Hap5017656A2:153, 16111A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 3339, 14280T, 16519
Hap5017657A2:16187A2:143, 315.1CC, 523-524d, 2442, 4052, 13708
Hap5017665A2:153, 16290A2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 2971T, 3316, 8681, 10370
Hap5017667noneA2:56.1C, 214, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5267, 16326, 16519
Hap5017673A2:16111, 16311A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7389, 7669, 16075, 16519
Hap5017674A2:16111, 16311A2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 7389, 7669, 16519
Hap5017698A2:16319A2:315.1C, 523-524d, 3398, 6752, 7196A, 14999T, 16179, 16519
Hap5022219Zheng et al., 2012noneA2:523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5022220Zheng et al., 2012noneA2:384, 523-524d, 4011, 11653, 13731, 15586, 16519
Hap5022221Zheng et al., 2012noneA2:315.1C, 523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5022222Zheng et al., 2012noneA2:523-524d, 11653, 13731, 16519
Hap5022223Zheng et al., 2012noneA2:179, 385, 523-524d, 16218
Hap5022224Zheng et al., 2012noneA2:214, 523-524d, 5267, 9327, 16326
Hap5022225Zheng et al., 2012noneA2:523-524d, 5114, 16145, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Country
Mother's
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Maternal
Origin
Hap10040961ArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentina
Hap10040962ArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentina
Hap10040963ArgentinaArgentinaArgentinaArgentina
Hap10040964BoliviaBoliviaBoliviaBolivia
Hap10040965BoliviaBoliviaBoliviaBolivia
Hap10040966United StatesBoliviaBoliviaBolivia
Hap10040967BrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040968BrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040969BrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040970BrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040971BrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040972BrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040973BrazilBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040974SpainBrazilBrazilBrazil
Hap10040975PeruPeruBrazilBrazil
Hap10040976PortugalPortugalBrazilBrazil
Hap10040977CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040978CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040979CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040980CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040981CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040982CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040983CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040984CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada
Hap10040985CanadaCanadaCanadaCanada

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Keywords

Peoples: Native Americans | Places: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, North America, Peru, Puerto Rico, South America, Uruguay, and Venezuela

Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 13:10 pm

2 thoughts on “A2”

  1. I’m from North Louisiana, a very small town that was once a Spanish Mission so our ancestors are mostly Spanish and Native American mixed.
    My father’s mother is 38% Native, 32% Spanish and Portuguese, 20% Broadly Southern European, 5%Sub Saharan African, Western Asian, North African and 5% unassigned.
    Her maternal haplogroup is C1d and I was looking up all the relatives on 23&Me that are from this same town and I found maternal haplogroups A2 for four people, D1 for two, B2 for twelve of them, C1d for three,C1c for seven of them, a C1c2, C4, and B2b.
    Is that fairly normal? I looked up 50 people from here and that’s what I got plus a V and an H

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