Haplogroup A1a is a Eurasian branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is between 3,700 and 10,800 years old (Behar et al 2012b).
Published research includes highly diverse origins for this lineage. The earliest study including the lineage has a sample from Japan (Tanaka et al., 2004). From Derenko et al., 2007 comes a sample from Velikij Novgorod in Russia while Derenko et al., 2013 includes a sample from Iran. A shared additional mutation shared by these two samples indicates a connection. Meanwhile, a citizen science donation comes from an ethnic Turk in Turkey (Greenspan et al., 2006 – 2016).
Geno 2 data includes additional origins including Germany, India, Japan, the United Kingdom and many participants in the United States with European origins.
It is not clear if the diverse origins stem from migrations both east and west from Central Asia or are part of a complex Western migration from East Asia.
It is worth noting that prior to Phylotree build 16 it was known as A4a1 in published research.
mtDNA Haplogroup A1a Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|03||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||A4a1||9713 16249||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||A4a1||G9713A T16249C||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||A4a1||G9713A T16249C||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||A1a||G9713A T16249C||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A1a||G9713A T16249C||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup A1a Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5008175||-||Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016||A1a||-||none||A1a:315.1C, 523-524d, 1462, 16519|
|Hap5014940||-||Tanaka et al., 2004||A1a||-||none||A1a:309.1C, 315.1C, 384, 523-524d, 11147, 16234, 16352|
|Hap5015819||-||Derenko et al., 2007||A1a||-||none||A1a:315.1C, 523-524d, 9477, 16519|
|Hap5020959||-||Derenko et al., 2013||A1a||-||none||A1a:315.1C, 523-524d, 9477, 13768, 16519|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Grzybowski, T., Denisova, G., Dambueva, I., Perkova, M., Dorzhu, C., Luzina, F., Lee, H.K., Vanecek, T. and Villems, R. (2007). Phylogeographic Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA in Northern Asian Populations. American journal of human genetics, 81(5), 1025-1041.
- Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B., Bahmanimehr, A., Denisova, G., Perkova, M., Farjadian, S., & Yepiskoposyan, L. (2013). Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians. PLoS ONE, 8(11), e80673.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- FamilyTreeDNA & Greenspan (2006). Sequences Directly Submited by FamilyTreeDNA on Customers’ Behalf. , -, -.
- Tanaka, M., Cabrera, V.M., González, A.M., Larruga, J.M., Takeyasu, T., Fuku, N., Guo, L.J., Hirose, R., Fujita, Y., Kurata, M. & Shinoda, K.I. (2004). Mitochondrial Genome Variation in Eastern Asia and the Peopling of Japan. Genome Research, 14(10a), 1832-1850.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Peoples: - | Places: Germany, India, Iran, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and Turkey
Last Updated: [lastupdated]