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Age: 7,240.4 ± 3,524.1; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Asia
Mutations: G9713A T16249C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: A1
Descendant branch(s): A1a1


Haplogroup A1a is a Eurasian branch on the maternal tree of humanity. It is between 3,700 and 10,800 years old (Behar et al 2012b).

Published research includes highly diverse origins for this lineage. The earliest study including the lineage has a sample from Japan (Tanaka et al., 2004). From Derenko et al., 2007 comes a sample from Velikij Novgorod in Russia while Derenko et al., 2013 includes a sample from Iran. A shared additional mutation shared by these two samples indicates a connection. Meanwhile, a citizen science donation comes from an ethnic Turk in Turkey (Greenspan et al., 2006 – 2016).

Geno 2 data includes additional origins including Germany, India, Japan, the United Kingdom and many participants in the United States with European origins.

It is not clear if the diverse origins stem from migrations both east and west from Central Asia or are part of a complex Western migration from East Asia.

It is worth noting that prior to Phylotree build 16 it was known as A4a1 in published research.

mtDNA Haplogroup A1a Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
03 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 10 May 2009
05 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 A4a1 9713 16249 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 A4a1 G9713A T16249C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 A4a1 G9713A T16249C Released 30 Sep 2012
16 A1a G9713A T16249C Released 19 Feb 2014
17 A1a G9713A T16249C Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup A1a Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5008175 Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016 none A1a:315.1C, 523-524d, 1462, 16519
Hap5014940 Tanaka et al., 2004 none A1a:309.1C, 315.1C, 384, 523-524d, 11147, 16234, 16352
Hap5015819 Derenko et al., 2007 none A1a:315.1C, 523-524d, 9477, 16519
Hap5020959 Derenko et al., 2013 none A1a:315.1C, 523-524d, 9477, 13768, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10040943United KingdomUnited KingdomUnited KingdomUnited Kingdom
Hap10040944United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10040945United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10040946United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10040949United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10040950United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10040951United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10040952United StatesUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: - | Places: Germany, India, Iran, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and Turkey

Last Updated: Last updated: August 10, 2016 at 19:57 pm

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