Haplogroup M9a4a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 3,900 and 13,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
mtDNA Haplogroup M9a4a1 Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|08||M9a4a1||1120 5899.1C||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||M9a4a1||1120 5899.1C||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||M9a4a1||1120 5899.1C||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||M9a4a1||1120 5899.1C||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||M9a4a1||1120 5899.1C||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||M9a4a1||1120 5899.1C||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||M9a4a1||C1120T 5899.XC||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||M9a4a1||C1120T 5899.XC||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||M9a4a1||C1120T 5899.XC||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||M9a4a1||C1120T 5899.XC||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup M9a4a1 Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5015732||Soares et al., 2008||M9a4a1||M9a4a1||none||M9a4a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 1021A, 4260, 7673, 16519|
|Hap5015863||Vietnam||Soares et al., 2008||M9a4a1||M9a4a1||none||M9a4a1:4592, 6284, 8152, 16519|
|Hap5017451||Peng et al., 2011a||M9a4a1||M9a4a1||none||M9a4a1:315.1C, 3891, 8251, 16255, 16519|
|Hap5017452||Peng et al., 2011a||M9a4a1||M9a4a1||none||M9a4a1:315.1C, 5592, 6392, 16093, 16519|
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Peng, Min S.; Palanichamy, Malliya; Yao, Yong G.; Mitra, Bikash; Cheng, Yao T.; Zhao, Mian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Hua W.; Pan, Hui; Wang, Wen Z.; Zhang, A. Mei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Dong; Zou, Yang; Yang, Yang; Chaudhuri, Tapas; Kong, Qing P. & Zhang, Ya P. (2011). Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a’b. BMC Biology, 9(1), 2+.
- - (2008). A Direct Submission to GenBank by Soares et al., 2008. , unpublished, unpublished.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup M
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup M
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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