Haplogroup M9a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 14,400 and 21,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
mtDNA Haplogroup M9a Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||M9a||9242 16316||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||M9a||9242 16316||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|02||M9a'c'd||14308 16234||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||M9a||9242 16316||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|03||M9a'c'd||14308 16234||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||M9a||9242 16316||Released 10 May 2009|
|04||M9a'c'd||14308 16234||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||M9a||9242 16316||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|05||M9a'c'd||14308 16234||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||M9a||9242 16316||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|06||M9a'c'd||14308 16234||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||M9a||9242 16316||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|07||M9a'c'd||14308 16234||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||M9a||14308 16234||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||M9a||14308 16234||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||M9a||14308 16234||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||M9a||14308 16234||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||M9a||14308 16234||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||M9a||14308 16234||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||M9a||T14308C C16234T||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||M9a||T14308C C16234T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||M9a||T14308C C16234T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||M9a||T14308C C16234T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup M9a Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5005560||Bilal et al., 2008||none||M9a:315.1C, 1763, 8670, 9377, 11764, 13020, 16274, 16519|
|Hap5011247||Ko et al., 2014||M9a:146, 153||M9a:217, 3447, 4231, 7142, 8440, 13194, 13602, 13989, 14053, 14687, 15106, 15289, 15712, 16519|
|Hap5017459||Peng et al., 2011a||M9a:146, 153, 16311||M9a:217, 309.1C, 315.1C, 3447, 4231, 7142, 8440, 13194, 13602, 13989, 14053, 14687, 15106, 15289, 15712, 16519|
|Hap5017460||Peng et al., 2011a||none||M9a:309.1C, 315.1C, 7598, 7600, 9288, 14569, 16172, 16240, 16519|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10071400||Korea, South||Unspecified||Unspecified||Korea, South|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Bilal, E., Rabadan, R., Alexe, G., Fuku, N., Ueno, H., Nishigaki, Y., Fujita, Y., Ito, M., Arai, Y., Hirose, N. and Ruckenstein, A. (2008). Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup D4a Is a Marker for Extreme Longevity in Japan. PLoS ONE, 3(6), e2421.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Ko, A.M.S., Chen, C.Y., Fu, Q., Delfin, F., Li, M., Chiu, H.L., Stoneking, M. and Ko, Y.C. (2014). Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan. American journal of human genetics, 94(3), 426-436.
- Peng, Min S.; Palanichamy, Malliya; Yao, Yong G.; Mitra, Bikash; Cheng, Yao T.; Zhao, Mian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Hua W.; Pan, Hui; Wang, Wen Z.; Zhang, A. Mei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Dong; Zou, Yang; Yang, Yang; Chaudhuri, Tapas; Kong, Qing P. & Zhang, Ya P. (2011). Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b. BMC Biology, 9(1), 2+.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup M
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup M
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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Last Updated: Last updated: September 30, 2018 at 13:40 pm