Age: 16,792.3 ± 2,931.7; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Americas
Mutations: C2092T T16325C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: D
Descendant branch(s): D1a D1b D1c D1d D1e D1f D1g D1h D1i D1j D1k D1m D1n


Haplogroup D1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 13,900 and 19,700 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).


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National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: D1
Age: Over 15,000 Years Ago
Origin: the Americas
Blurb: This lineage was born at least 15,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum. From its birthplace in the Americas, this lineage spread along the coastline of North America and into South America.

The people developed many unique cultures, traditions, and languages. Language families spoken by groups containing this lineage include the Arawak, the Chibchan, the Uto-Aztecan, and the Tucanoan.

Today, geneticists have found this lineage most often in the Wayúu (30 percent) and the Northern Paiute (20 percent). This line is 11 percent of the Tucuman and the Salta. It is about 10 percent of the Ngäbe and of the Secoya. It is present at lower frequencies among the Zuni (9 percent), the Vaupes (5 percent), and the Kogui (2 percent).

Interest Point: Although the Zuni people are a Pueblo people, their Zuni language is an isolate separate from other existing languages. It is also an endangered language.
Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup D1 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01D12092 16325Released 27 Aug 2008
02D12092 16325Released 14 Oct 2008
03D12092 16325Released 1 Mar 2009
04D12092 16325Released 10 May 2009
05D12092 16325Released 8 Jul 2009
06D12092 16325Released 28 Sep 2009
07D12092 16325Released 10 Nov 2009
08D12092 16325Released 21 Mar 2010
09D12092 16325Released 20 Jun 2010
10D12092 16325Released 10 Aug 2010
11D12092 16325Released 7 Feb 2011
12D12092 16325Released 20 Jul 2011
13D12092 16325Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14D1C2092T T16325CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15D1C2092T T16325CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16D1C2092T T16325CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17D1C2092T T16325CReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup D1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5003333Behar et al., 2012bnoneD1:150, 315.1C, 6359, 7747, 13734, 13827, 14632, 14803, 15760, 16184, 16291, 16519
Hap5005262Behar et al., 2012bnoneD1:143, 315.1C, 4973, 7407, 8477, 9966, 11002, 15034, 16319, 16519
Hap5007117Fagundes et al., 2008noneD1:143, 309.1C, 315.1C, 5324, 7278, 14034, 14055, 16175, 16519
Hap5007124Fagundes et al., 2008noneD1:210, 228, 309.1C, 315.1C, 4218, 11150, 15106, 16239, 16519
Hap5010486Just et al., 2008noneD1:315.1C, 4204, 10208, 13781, 15221, 16092Y
Hap5015954Achilli et al., 2008noneD1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 524.1AC, 14484, 15930, 16519
Hap5017826D1:152D1:309.1CT, 310, 315.1C, 4688, 16519
Hap5017829noneD1:315.1C, 593, 1719, 16519
Hap5017835D1:146, 152, 16189D1:309.1C, 315.1C, 8843, 16183C
Hap5022460Zheng et al., 2012noneD1:150, 6359, 7747, 13734, 13827, 14632, 14803, 15760, 16184, 16291, 16519
Hap5022461Zheng et al., 2012D1:195, 16189D1:10007, 11176, 14025, 14334, 15928, 16186
Hap5022462Zheng et al., 2012noneD1:140, 8592, 8701, 8848, 11884, 13681, 14470, 16104, 16357, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10045957United StatesChileChileChile

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 9:31 am

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