Age: 16,792.3 ± 2,931.7; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Americas
Variants: C2092T T16325C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: D
Descendant branch(s): D1a D1b D1c D1d D1e D1f D1g D1h D1i D1j D1k D1m D1n

YFull Info

Name: D1

Age: 30300 to 25800 ybp [95% CI]

Expansion: 23000 to 20800 ybp [95% CI]

Variants: C2092T T16325C

Note: This information does not imply an endorcement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.


Haplogroup D1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 13,900 and 19,700 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).


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Ancient DNA

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National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: D1
Age: Over 15,000 Years Ago
Origin: the Americas
Blurb: This lineage was born at least 15,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum. From its birthplace in the Americas, this lineage spread along the coastline of North America and into South America.

The people developed many unique cultures, traditions, and languages. Language families spoken by groups containing this lineage include the Arawak, the Chibchan, the Uto-Aztecan, and the Tucanoan.

Today, geneticists have found this lineage most often in the Wayúu (30 percent) and the Northern Paiute (20 percent). This line is 11 percent of the Tucuman and the Salta. It is about 10 percent of the Ngäbe and of the Secoya. It is present at lower frequencies among the Zuni (9 percent), the Vaupes (5 percent), and the Kogui (2 percent).

Interest Point: Although the Zuni people are a Pueblo people, their Zuni language is an isolate separate from other existing languages. It is also an endangered language.
Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup D1 Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Variants (Mutations) Notes
01 D1 2092 16325 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 D1 2092 16325 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 D1 2092 16325 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 D1 2092 16325 Released 10 May 2009
05 D1 2092 16325 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 D1 2092 16325 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 D1 2092 16325 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 D1 2092 16325 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 D1 2092 16325 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 D1 2092 16325 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 D1 2092 16325 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 D1 2092 16325 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 D1 2092 16325 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 D1 C2092T T16325C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 D1 C2092T T16325C Released 30 Sep 2012
16 D1 C2092T T16325C Released 19 Feb 2014
17 D1 C2092T T16325C Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup D1 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Origin Publication Hg BLD16 Hg BLD17 Hg YFull Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5003333 Behar et al., 2012b D1 D1* none D1:150, 315.1C, 6359, 7747, 13734, 13827, 14632, 14803, 15760, 16184, 16291, 16519
Hap5005262 Behar et al., 2012b D1 D1* none D1:143, 315.1C, 4973, 7407, 8477, 9966, 11002, 15034, 16319, 16519
Hap5007117 Fagundes et al., 2008 D1 D1* none D1:143, 309.1C, 315.1C, 5324, 7278, 14034, 14055, 16175, 16519
Hap5007124 Fagundes et al., 2008 D1 D1* none D1:210, 228, 309.1C, 315.1C, 4218, 11150, 15106, 16239, 16519
Hap5010486 Just et al., 2008 D1 D1* none D1:315.1C, 4204, 10208, 13781, 15221, 16092Y
Hap5015954 Canada Achilli et al., 2008 D1 D1* none D1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 524.1AC, 14484, 15930, 16519
Hap5017826 D1 D1* D1:152 D1:309.1CT, 310, 315.1C, 4688, 16519
Hap5017829 D1 D1* none D1:315.1C, 593, 1719, 16519
Hap5017835 D1 D1* D1:146, 152, 16189 D1:309.1C, 315.1C, 8843, 16183C
Hap5022460 Zheng et al., 2012 D1 none D1:150, 6359, 7747, 13734, 13827, 14632, 14803, 15760, 16184, 16291, 16519
Hap5022461 Zheng et al., 2012 D1 D1:195, 16189 D1:10007, 11176, 14025, 14334, 15928, 16186
Hap5022462 Zheng et al., 2012 D1 none D1:140, 8592, 8701, 8848, 11884, 13681, 14470, 16104, 16357, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10045942 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10045943 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10045944 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10045945 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10045946 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10045947 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10045948 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10045949 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10045950 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10045951 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10045952 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10045953 Chile Chile Chile Chile
Hap10045954 Chile Chile Chile Chile
Hap10045955 Chile Chile Chile Chile
Hap10045956 Chile Chile Chile Chile
Hap10045957 United States Chile Chile Chile
Hap10045958 Colombia Colombia Colombia Colombia
Hap10045959 Colombia Colombia Colombia Colombia
Hap10045960 Colombia Colombia Colombia Colombia
Hap10045961 Colombia Colombia Colombia Colombia
Hap10045962 Colombia Colombia Colombia Colombia
Hap10045963 Colombia Colombia Colombia Colombia
Hap10045964 Colombia Colombia Colombia Colombia
Hap10045965 Venezuela Venezuela Colombia Colombia
Hap10045966 Cuba Cuba Cuba Cuba

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 9:31 am

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