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Age: 38,434.1 ± 4,738.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Central Asia
Mutations: C5178a T16362C
Parent Branch: M80'D
Descendant branch(s): D1 D2 D4 D5 D6


Haplogroup D is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup M80'D. It was likely born in the Americas around 38,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of D to have been born in Central Asia.

Those that reached the Americas belong to the one of several branches. They are D1, D2, D3, and D4h3a.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the D lineage between 33,700 and 43,200 ago. This means the line was born in the the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

In the Americas, several D samples from ancient DNA extracted from teeth found in northwestern North America have been found. (Malhi et al., 2004) These could be from any one of the Native American D branches.

  • Northern Plateau
    • Plateau Salish (Salisham language family) 1 out of 11 samples dating to about 200 BP
    • Vantage 3 out 7 samples dating to between 500 and 1500 BP
  • Southern Plateau
    • Plateau Sahaptian (Sahaptian language family) 2 out of 8 samples dating to about 200 BP
    • Wishram (Chinook language family) 9 out of 33 samples dating to about 200 BP


This timeline is an overview of the D branch's history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the D lineage. (View in new tab.)

Modern Populations

Today, D is found in much of Asia and in the Americas. The highest frequency is on the Eastern coast of China. It is present in Central and West Asia. However, it is only found in the far north of South Asia.

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: D
Age: 48,300 ± 12,900 Years Ago
Origin: Central Asia
Blurb: This branch of your direct maternal ancestors' journey began in the deserts and plains between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal in Central Asia.Before the last glacial maximum, some members of this lineage migrated into East Asia and Siberia.Around 17,000 years ago, a population explosion in East Asia triggered expansion into new lands. Groups containing this line began migrating into the surrounding areas and headed south.When a corridor opened between Siberia and North America over 15,000 years ago, some members of this line moved across into the Americas. There these subtypes were founding lineages and today are present throughout native populations of North and South America.Today, this line remains 10 to 20 percent of the population in Central Asia. It is a dominant lineage in East Asia, accounting for around 20 percent of the entire maternal gene pool there. Though greatly reduced in indigenous populations, this line remains prevalent in the Americas.Interest Point: Between Central Asia and East Asia, there are several signatures that match each other exactly. These are from recent mixture within the last 5,000 years and geneticists link them to Silk Road trade routes that connected all of Eurasia.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup D Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01D4883 5178A 16362Released 27 Aug 2008
02D4883 5178A 16362Released 14 Oct 2008
03D4883 5178A 16362Released 1 Mar 2009
04D4883 5178A 16362Released 10 May 2009
05D4883 5178A 16362Released 8 Jul 2009
06D4883 5178A 16362Released 28 Sep 2009
07D4883 5178A 16362Released 10 Nov 2009
08D4883 5178A 16362Released 21 Mar 2010
09D4883 5178A 16362Released 20 Jun 2010
10D4883 5178A 16362Released 10 Aug 2010
11D4883 5178A 16362Released 7 Feb 2011
12D4883 5178A 16362Released 20 Jul 2011
13D5178A 16362Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14DC5178a T16362CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15DC5178a T16362CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16DC5178a T16362CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17DC5178a T16362CReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup D Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 14:36 pm

2018-10-08T14:36:21+00:00June 6th, 2016|
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