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Age: 21,661.6 ± 8,380.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Central Asia
Mutations: A6752G T9090C T15784C C16185T C16260T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: CZ
Descendant branch(s): Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z7


Haplogroup Z is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup CZ. It was likely born around 22,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


MtDNA haplogroup Z was likely born in Central Asia.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the Z lineage between 13,300 and 30,000 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


This timeline is an overview of the Z branch's history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the Z lineage. (View in new tab.)

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: Z
Age: About 24,300 Years Ago
Origin: Central Asia
Blurb: This branch of your direct maternal ancestors' journey began in the deserts and plains between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal in Central Asia.Before the last glacial maximum, some members of this line migrated north into East Asia. It now makes up around 2 percent of the people living in East Asia. Groups containing this maternal lineage then traveled into Siberia. It is a founding lineage there. Although it has a low frequency there (about 3 percent), it has a high amount of diversity.From the Siberian homeland, groups containing this lineage began migrating into the surrounding areas.

However, geographic features are often barriers to population movements and, therefore, to gene flow and mixture. This is apparent for this line where the Ural Mountains and the Volga River separate Asia from Europe. Though this line is part of populations at moderate frequencies across Asia, it contributes a meager 1 to 2 percent to the lineages of Europe. It does have a significant minority frequency in Finland and Russia, especially in the Saami people. This may be due to recent migrations.

Interest Points: Ingeborg Eriksdotter (c. 1212 – c. 1254), the first wife of Birger Magnusson, a powerful medieval leader, belonged to the Z1b subtype. Eriksdotter's direct maternal line traces back to Adelaide of Mochental, and it links to many early European ruling families.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup Z Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01Z152 6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 27 Aug 2008
02Z152 6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 14 Oct 2008
03Z152 6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 1 Mar 2009
04Z152 6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 10 May 2009
05Z152 6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 8 Jul 2009
06Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 28 Sep 2009
07Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 10 Nov 2009
08Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 21 Mar 2010
09Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 20 Jun 2010
10Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 10 Aug 2010
11Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 7 Feb 2011
12Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 20 Jul 2011
13Z6752 9090 15784 16185 16260Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14ZA6752G T9090C T15784C C16185T C16260TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15ZA6752G T9090C T15784C C16185T C16260TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16ZA6752G T9090C T15784C C16185T C16260TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17ZA6752G T9090C T15784C C16185T C16260TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup Z Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 18:19 pm

2018-10-08T18:19:54+00:00June 6th, 2016|

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