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Age: 13,359.4 ± 3,955.2; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Americas
Mutations: C14433T G15148A
Parent Branch: C4a'b'c
Descendant branch(s): C4c1 C4c2


Haplogroup C4c is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup C4a'b'c. It was likely born in the Americas around 14,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of C4c to have been born in the Americas.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the C4c lineage between 9,400 and 17,300 ago. This means the line was born in the the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


Coming Soon


Modern Populations

The C4c has an interesting geography. It is found in native populations in the west of North America and along both coastlines of South America.

mtDNA Haplogroup C4c Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01C4c11440 13368 14433 15148 16245 16519Released 27 Aug 2008
02C4c11440 13368 14433 15148 16245 16519Released 14 Oct 2008
03C4c11440 13368 14433 15148 16245Released 1 Mar 2009
04C4c11440 13368 14433 15148 16245Released 10 May 2009
05C4c11440 13368 14433 15148 16245Released 8 Jul 2009
06C4c10873! 11440 13368 14433 15148 16245Released 28 Sep 2009
07C4c10873! 11440 13368 14433 15148 16245Released 10 Nov 2009
08C4c14433 15148Released 21 Mar 2010
09C4c14433 15148Released 20 Jun 2010
10C4c14433 15148Released 10 Aug 2010
11C4c14433 15148Released 7 Feb 2011
12C4c14433 15148Released 20 Jul 2011
13C4c14433 15148Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14C4cC14433T G15148AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15C4cC14433T G15148AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16C4cC14433T G15148AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17C4cC14433T G15148AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup C4c Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5014562Tamm et al., 2007noneC4c:10873, 11440, 13368, 16245

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 19:24 pm

2018-10-05T19:24:46+00:00June 6th, 2016|
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