Haplogroup C4c is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup C4a'b'c. It was likely born in the Americas around 14,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)
Most researchers consider the birthplace of C4c to have been born in the Americas.
Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the C4c lineage between 9,400 and 17,300 ago. This means the line was born in the the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.
The C4c has an interesting geography. It is found in native populations in the west of North America and along both coastlines of South America.
mtDNA Haplogroup C4c Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||C4c||11440 13368 14433 15148 16245 16519||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||C4c||11440 13368 14433 15148 16245 16519||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||C4c||11440 13368 14433 15148 16245||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||C4c||11440 13368 14433 15148 16245||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||C4c||11440 13368 14433 15148 16245||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||C4c||10873! 11440 13368 14433 15148 16245||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||C4c||10873! 11440 13368 14433 15148 16245||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||C4c||14433 15148||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||C4c||14433 15148||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||C4c||14433 15148||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||C4c||14433 15148||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||C4c||14433 15148||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||C4c||14433 15148||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||C4c||C14433T G15148A||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||C4c||C14433T G15148A||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||C4c||C14433T G15148A||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||C4c||C14433T G15148A||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup C4c Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5014562||Tamm et al., 2007||none||C4c:10873, 11440, 13368, 16245|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Duggan, A.T., Harris, A.J., Marciniak, S., Marshall, I., Kuch, M., Kitchen, A., Renaud, G., Southon, J., Fuller, B., Young, J. and Fiedel, S. (2017). Genetic Discontinuity between the Maritime Archaic and Beothuk Populations in Newfoundland, Canada. Current Biology, -, -.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Tamm, E., Kivisild, T., Reidla, M., Metspalu, M., Smith, D.G., Mulligan, C.J., Bravi, C.M., Rickards, O., Martinez-Labarga, C., Khusnutdinova, E.K. and Fedorova, S.A. (2007). Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders. PLoS ONE, 2(9), e829.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup C
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup C
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 19:24 pm