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Age: 18,728.5 ± 5,836.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Beringia
Mutations: G6026A G11969A T15204C
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: C
Descendant branch(s): C4a'b'c C4d C4e


Haplogroup C4 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 12,900 and 24,600 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: C4
Age: About 17,700 Years Ago
Origin: Beringia
Blurb: This line was born about 17,500 years ago to the group of people who would travel over the Bering land bridge to the Americas. From its birthplace, this lineage spread through North America to South America.

Today, geneticists have fond this rare lineage in about 4 percent of the Dogrib and about 5 percent of the Embera.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup C4 Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 27 Aug 2008
02C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 14 Oct 2008
03C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 1 Mar 2009
04C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 10 May 2009
05C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 8 Jul 2009
06C46026 11969 15204Released 28 Sep 2009
07C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 10 Nov 2009
08C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 21 Mar 2010
09C42232.1A 6026 11969 15204Released 20 Jun 2010
10C46026 11969 15204Released 10 Aug 2010
11C46026 11969 15204Released 7 Feb 2011
12C46026 11969 15204Released 20 Jul 2011
13C46026 11969 15204Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14C4G6026A G11969A T15204CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15C4G6026A G11969A T15204CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16C4G6026A G11969A T15204CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17C4G6026A G11969A T15204CReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup C4 Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5012403Qin et al. 2010C4:152, 16129C4:315.1CC, 4742, 8152, 10314, 16093, 16297
Hap5016650Derenko et al., 2010noneC4:189, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 14004, 16287

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: August 5, 2018 at 15:54 pm

2018-08-05T15:54:43+00:00June 6th, 2016|