FTDNA Sales Banner
Ads and affiliate links like this help support the Q-M242 project's efforts to test indigenous peoples. Please read the affiliateship and business disclaimers for details. You may also donate directly here.



Age: 15,500.2 ± 5,232.0; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Americas
Mutations: A16051G
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: C1
Descendant branch(s): C1d1 C1d2 C1d3


Haplogroup C1d is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup C1. It was likely born in the Americas around 16,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of C1d to be the Americas.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the C1d lineage between 10,300 and 20,700 ago. This means the line was born in the late Upper Paleolithic or the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


Coming Soon

Modern Populations

This native lineage is only found in isolated populations in the far north of South America.

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: C1d
Age: 9,500 ± 3,400 Years Ago
Origin: the Americas
Blurb: This step of your ancestors’ journey took place around 9,500 years ago as the last glacial maximum was ending. From its birthplace in North America, this lineage spread along the coastline of North America and into South America.Today, this lineage is most common in the Zuni (45 percent), the Secoya (30 percent), and the Vaupes (27 percent). It is also about 22 percent of the Coreguaje and about 19 percent of the Wayúu peoples. It is about 17 percent of Salta maternal lineages. It is around 11 percent of the Tucuman population. The Northern Paiute’s maternal lineages are around 10 percent and the Dogrib are about 4 percent.Interest Facts: Although the Zuni people are a Pueblo people, their Zuni language is an isolate separate from other existing languages. It is also an endangered language.Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup C1d Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 C1d 7697 16051 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 C1d 7697 16051 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 C1d 7697 16051 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 C1d 7697 16051 Released 10 May 2009
05 C1d 7697 16051 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 C1d 7697 16051 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 C1d 7697 16051 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 C1d 16051 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 C1d 16051 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 C1d 16051 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 C1d 16051 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 C1d 16051 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 C1d 16051 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 C1d A16051G Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 C1d A16051G Released 30 Sep 2012
16 C1d A16051G Released 19 Feb 2014
17 C1d A16051G Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup C1d Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5005193 Behar et al., 2012b none C1d:151, 153, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 574, 3338, 5294, 7618, 8556, 10750, 10978, 16270, 16437
Hap5011759 Malhi et al., 2010 none C1d:143, 189, 226, 310d, 313-402d, 3106N, 4907, 8670, 9854, 11437, 12490, 16519
Hap5017312 Perego et al., 2010 none C1d:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 12717
Hap5017313 Perego et al., 2010 C1d:16311 C1d:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 1282, 11020, 12937, 13604C, 14128, 16319, 16519
Hap5017815 none C1d:309.1CC, 315.1C, 16519
Hap5017816 none C1d:309.1CT, 310, 315.1C, 523-524d, 12717
Hap5017817 none C1d:151, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6340, 15172, 16086, 16184, 16519
Hap5017819 C1d:146, 16311 C1d:315.1C, 523-524d, 1282, 12937, 14128, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10045643United StatesEl SalvadorEl SalvadorEl Salvador
Hap10045646United StatesMexicoMexicoMexico
Hap10045647United StatesUnited StatesMexicoMexico
Hap10045648United StatesMexicoSpainSpain
Hap10045649United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10045650United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10045652United StatesMexicoUnspecifiedMexico
Hap10045653United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10045654United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10045655United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10045656United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


Peoples: | Places:

Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 18:59 pm

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

you're currently offline