Age: 14,793.8 ± 3,043.2; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Americas
Mutations: A493G
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: C1
Descendant branch(s): C1b1 C1b10 C1b11 C1b12 C1b13 C1b14 C1b2 C1b3 C1b4 C1b5 C1b6 C1b7 C1b8 C1b9


Haplogroup C1b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup C1. It was likely born in the Americas around 15,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of C1b to be the Americas.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the C1b lineage between 11,800 and 17,800 ago. This means the line was born in the late Upper Paleolithic or the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


Coming Soon

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: C1b
Age: Over 15,000 Years Ago
Origin: the Americas
Blurb: This step in your ancestors’ travels took place over 15,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum. It was born in a group of people who had traveled over the Bering land bridge to the Americas. From its birthplace, this lineage spread along the coastline of North America and into South America.Today, this lineage is most common among the Zuni (36 percent) and Catamarca (32 percent) populations. It is 26 percent of the Waunana, 25 percent of the Northern Paiute and 25 percent of the Apache. It is 22 percent of Ngäbe maternal lineages. It is present in 14 percent of Wayuu groups, 11 percent of Salta groups. It is also about 3 percent of the Embera population.Interest Point: Although the Zuni people are a Pueblo people, their Zuni language is an isolate separate from other existing languages. It is also an endangered language.Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup C1b Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01C1b493Released 27 Aug 2008
02C1b493Released 14 Oct 2008
03C1b493Released 1 Mar 2009
04C1b493Released 10 May 2009
05C1b493Released 8 Jul 2009
06C1b493Released 28 Sep 2009
07C1b493Released 10 Nov 2009
08C1b493Released 21 Mar 2010
09C1b493Released 20 Jun 2010
10C1b493Released 10 Aug 2010
11C1b493Released 7 Feb 2011
12C1b493Released 20 Jul 2011
13C1b493Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14C1bA493GReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15C1bA493GReleased 30 Sep 2012
16C1bA493GReleased 19 Feb 2014
17C1bA493GReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup C1b Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5001543Behar et al., 2012bC1b:195, 16298C1b:143, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6253, 6635, 10370, 11084, 12612, 16086, 16291, 16519
Hap5002272Behar et al., 2012bnoneC1b:523-524d, 9686, 10031, 12705Y, 12879Y, 12976, 16294, 16519
Hap5005023Behar et al., 2012bnoneC1b:523-524d, 9686, 10031, 12879, 12976, 16294, 16519
Hap5007108Fagundes et al., 2008noneC1b:114, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 8383, 10586, 12193, 16093, 16256
Hap5007109Fagundes et al., 2008noneC1b:114, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 8383, 10586, 12193, 16093
Hap5007110Fagundes et al., 2008noneC1b:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 4014, 4491, 13656, 16199, 16254
Hap5007111Fagundes et al., 2008noneC1b:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6456, 13545, 16318C
Hap5007113Fagundes et al., 2008C1b:195C1b:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5238, 14788, 16223
Hap5008465Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneC1b:71, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 2393, 3197, 3394, 13766A, 16126, 16270, 16519
Hap5014568Tamm et al., 2007noneC1b:309.1CC, 315.1C, 485, 523-524d, 3768, 5600, 6872, 13734, 15465, 16519
Hap5017776C1b:16187C1b:72, 194, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6480, 14053, 16519
Hap5017785C1b:152C1b:199, 207, 309.1C, 315.1C, 340, 523-524d, 2757, 8508, 9500, 13830, 16092, 16519
Hap5017787noneC1b:9, 125G, 199, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3531, 5057, 16176, 16519
Hap5022424Zheng et al., 2012noneC1b:7211, 11152, 16519
Hap5022425Zheng et al., 2012noneC1b:7211, 11152, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10044795United StatesUnited StatesBarbadosBarbados
Hap10044800United StatesBoliviaBoliviaBolivia
Hap10044801United StatesBoliviaBoliviaBolivia
Hap10044816United StatesCanadaCanadaCanada

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 18:45 pm

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