Age: 14,793.8 ± 3,043.2; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Americas
Variants: A493G
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: C1
Descendant branch(s): C1b1 C1b10 C1b11 C1b12 C1b13 C1b14 C1b2 C1b3 C1b4 C1b5 C1b6 C1b7 C1b8 C1b9

YFull Info

Name: C1b

Age: 24600 to 20100 ybp [95% CI]

Expansion: 21400 to 20000 ybp [95% CI]

Variants: A493G

Note: This information does not imply an endorcement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.


Haplogroup C1b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup C1. It was likely born in the Americas around 15,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)


Most researchers consider the birthplace of C1b to be the Americas.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the C1b lineage between 11,800 and 17,800 ago. This means the line was born in the late Upper Paleolithic or the Mesolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


Coming Soon

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: C1b
Age: Over 15,000 Years Ago
Origin: the Americas
Blurb: This step in your ancestors’ travels took place over 15,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum. It was born in a group of people who had traveled over the Bering land bridge to the Americas. From its birthplace, this lineage spread along the coastline of North America and into South America.Today, this lineage is most common among the Zuni (36 percent) and Catamarca (32 percent) populations. It is 26 percent of the Waunana, 25 percent of the Northern Paiute and 25 percent of the Apache. It is 22 percent of Ngäbe maternal lineages. It is present in 14 percent of Wayuu groups, 11 percent of Salta groups. It is also about 3 percent of the Embera population.Interest Point: Although the Zuni people are a Pueblo people, their Zuni language is an isolate separate from other existing languages. It is also an endangered language.Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup C1b Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Variants (Mutations) Notes
01 C1b 493 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 C1b 493 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 C1b 493 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 C1b 493 Released 10 May 2009
05 C1b 493 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 C1b 493 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 C1b 493 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 C1b 493 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 C1b 493 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 C1b 493 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 C1b 493 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 C1b 493 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 C1b 493 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 C1b A493G Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 C1b A493G Released 30 Sep 2012
16 C1b A493G Released 19 Feb 2014
17 C1b A493G Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup C1b Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Origin Publication Hg BLD16 Hg BLD17 Hg YFull Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5001543 Behar et al., 2012b C1b C1b* C1b:195, 16298 C1b:143, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6253, 6635, 10370, 11084, 12612, 16086, 16291, 16519
Hap5002272 Behar et al., 2012b C1b C1b16 none C1b:523-524d, 9686, 10031, 12705Y, 12879Y, 12976, 16294, 16519
Hap5005023 Behar et al., 2012b C1b C1b16 none C1b:523-524d, 9686, 10031, 12879, 12976, 16294, 16519
Hap5007108 Fagundes et al., 2008 C1b C1b* none C1b:114, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 8383, 10586, 12193, 16093, 16256
Hap5007109 Fagundes et al., 2008 C1b C1b* none C1b:114, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 8383, 10586, 12193, 16093
Hap5007110 Fagundes et al., 2008 C1b C1b* none C1b:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 4014, 4491, 13656, 16199, 16254
Hap5007111 Fagundes et al., 2008 C1b C1b* none C1b:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6456, 13545, 16318C
Hap5007113 Fagundes et al., 2008 C1b C1b* C1b:195 C1b:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5238, 14788, 16223
Hap5008465 - Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016 C1b - none C1b:71, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 2393, 3197, 3394, 13766A, 16126, 16270, 16519
Hap5014568 Tamm et al., 2007 C1b C1b* none C1b:309.1CC, 315.1C, 485, 523-524d, 3768, 5600, 6872, 13734, 15465, 16519
Hap5017776 C1b C1b* C1b:16187 C1b:72, 194, 315.1C, 523-524d, 6480, 14053, 16519
Hap5017785 C1b C1b* C1b:152 C1b:199, 207, 309.1C, 315.1C, 340, 523-524d, 2757, 8508, 9500, 13830, 16092, 16519
Hap5017787 C1b C1b* none C1b:9, 125G, 199, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3531, 5057, 16176, 16519
Hap5022424 Zheng et al., 2012 C1b none C1b:7211, 11152, 16519
Hap5022425 Zheng et al., 2012 C1b none C1b:7211, 11152, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10044794 Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina
Hap10044795 United States United States Barbados Barbados
Hap10044796 Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10044797 Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10044798 Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10044799 Brazil Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10044800 United States Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10044801 United States Bolivia Bolivia Bolivia
Hap10044802 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044803 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044804 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044805 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044806 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044807 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044808 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044809 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044810 Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil
Hap10044811 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10044812 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10044813 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10044814 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10044815 Canada Canada Canada Canada
Hap10044816 United States Canada Canada Canada
Hap10044817 Chile Chile Chile Chile
Hap10044818 Chile Chile Chile Chile

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: October 5, 2018 at 18:45 pm

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