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C

Summary

Age: 23,912.2 ± 4,780.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Central Asia
Mutations: T3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327T
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: CZ
Descendant branch(s): C1 C4 C5 C7

Background

Haplogroup C is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of major haplogroup CZ. It was likely born in East Asia around 24,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b) Through historic travels, members of this line live across East Asia and the Americas.

Origin

The highest diversity of C branches is in Central Asia. Because of that, researchers believe it was born there. That is also where the most members of this line live today. However, some descendants traveled to the Americas.

Those that reached the Americas belong to the one of several branches. They are C1b, C1c, C1d, and C4c.

Age

Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the A lineage between 19,100 and 28,700 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

In the Americas, several C samples from ancient DNA extracted from teeth found in northwestern North America have been found. (Malhi et al., 2004) These could be from any one of the Native American C branches.

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  • Northern Plateau
    • Plateau Salish (Salisham language family) 1 out of 11 samples dating to about 200 BP
    • Vantage 1 out 7 samples dating to between 500 and 1500 BP
  • Southern Plateau
    • Plateau Sahaptian (Sahaptian language family) 2 out of 8 samples dating to about 200 BP

Timeline

This timeline is an overview of the C branch's history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the C lineage. (View in new tab.)

Modern Populations

In modern populations, C is most common in northern Asia. It is present in lower frequencies in the rest of East Asia as well as parts of South Asia and Eastern Europe. It has several branches in the Americas.

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: C
Age: 28,300 ± 9,000 Years Ago
Origin: Central Asia
Blurb: This point in your direct maternal ancestors' journey began around 28,300 years ago between the Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal in Central Asia, where the combination of deserts and plains lends itself to the nomadic lifestyle. Some members of this line migrated into East Asia.From East Asia, groups containing women from this lineage spread into Siberia. Geneticists consider it a founding lineage there, and it makes up over 20 percent of the population. This line now makes up around 5 to 10 percent of the people in Central Asia, and around 3 percent of people living in East Asia.Around 17,000 years ago, a population explosion in East Asia triggered expansion into new lands. Then over 15,000 years ago, a corridor opened between Siberia and North America. Some members of this lineage moved across into the Americas. They were one of only five founding lineages there and today this line is part of populations throughout native populations of North and South America.

Though this branch is part of populations at moderate frequencies across Asia, it contributes less than 1 percent to the lineages of Europe.

Interest Points: While four subtypes C1b, C1c, C1d, and C4c traveled to the Americas, the C1a subtype is only part of Asian populations in Asia. Another subtype, C1e, appears to be specific to Iceland.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup C Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build#CalledMutationsNotes
01C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 27 Aug 2008
02C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 14 Oct 2008
03C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 1 Mar 2009
04C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 10 May 2009
05C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 8 Jul 2009
06C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 28 Sep 2009
07C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 10 Nov 2009
08C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 21 Mar 2010
09C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 20 Jun 2010
10C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 10 Aug 2010
11C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 7 Feb 2011
12C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 20 Jul 2011
13C3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14CT3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15CT3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16CT3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17CT3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup C Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5009478Herrnstadt et al., 2002C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327C:1-576d, 5894, 6261, 10397, 13813, 14215, 16024-16569d
Hap5009668Herrnstadt et al., 2002C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327C:1-576d, 7697, 15670, 16024-16569d
Hap5009748Herrnstadt et al., 2002C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327C:1-576d, 11147, 16024-16569d
Hap5009803Herrnstadt et al., 2002C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327C:1-576d, 597.1C, 1670T, 7694, 10454, 16024-16569d
Hap5010888Kivisild et al., 2006C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327C:1-435d, 1719, 7697, 12501, 15106, 16022-16569d
Hap5010945Kivisild et al., 2006C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327C:1-435d, 493, 523-524d, 1719, 7337, 10084, 11447, 16022-16569d

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Country
Mother's
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Maternal
Origin

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Keywords

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Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 7:36 am

2018-10-08T07:36:32+00:00June 6th, 2016|