Haplogroup C is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of major haplogroup CZ. It was likely born in East Asia around 24,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b) Through historic travels, members of this line live across East Asia and the Americas.
The highest diversity of C branches is in Central Asia. Because of that, researchers believe it was born there. That is also where the most members of this line live today. However, some descendants traveled to the Americas.
Those that reached the Americas belong to the one of several branches. They are C1b, C1c, C1d, and C4c.
Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the A lineage between 19,100 and 28,700 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. At the time, people were using stone tools.
In the Americas, several C samples from ancient DNA extracted from teeth found in northwestern North America have been found. (Malhi et al., 2004) These could be from any one of the Native American C branches.
- Northern Plateau
- Plateau Salish (Salisham language family) 1 out of 11 samples dating to about 200 BP
- Vantage 1 out 7 samples dating to between 500 and 1500 BP
- Southern Plateau
- Plateau Sahaptian (Sahaptian language family) 2 out of 8 samples dating to about 200 BP
This timeline is an overview of the C branch's history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the C lineage. (View in new tab.)
In modern populations, C is most common in northern Asia. It is present in lower frequencies in the rest of East Asia as well as parts of South Asia and Eastern Europe. It has several branches in the Americas.
National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text
mtDNA Haplogroup C Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||C||3552A 9545 11914 13263 14318 16327||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||C||T3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327T||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||C||T3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||C||T3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||C||T3552a A9545G G11914A! A13263G T14318C C16327T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup C Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5009478||Herrnstadt et al., 2002||C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327||C:1-576d, 5894, 6261, 10397, 13813, 14215, 16024-16569d|
|Hap5009668||Herrnstadt et al., 2002||C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327||C:1-576d, 7697, 15670, 16024-16569d|
|Hap5009748||Herrnstadt et al., 2002||C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327||C:1-576d, 11147, 16024-16569d|
|Hap5009803||Herrnstadt et al., 2002||C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 489, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327||C:1-576d, 597.1C, 1670T, 7694, 10454, 16024-16569d|
|Hap5010888||Kivisild et al., 2006||C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327||C:1-435d, 1719, 7697, 12501, 15106, 16022-16569d|
|Hap5010945||Kivisild et al., 2006||C:146, 152, 195, 247, 249d, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16298, 16311, 16327||C:1-435d, 493, 523-524d, 1719, 7337, 10084, 11447, 16022-16569d|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Herrnstadt, Corinna; Elson, Joanna L.; Fahy, Eoin; Preston, Gwen; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Anderson, Christen; Ghosh, Soumitra S.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Beal, M. Flint; Davis, Robert E. & Howell, Neil (2002). Reduced-median-network analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA coding-region sequences for the major African, Asian, and European haplogroups. American journal of human genetics, 70(5), 1152-1171.
- Kivisild, Toomas; Shen, Peidong; Wall, Dennis P.; Do, Bao; Sung, Raphael; Davis, Karen; Passarino, Giuseppe; Underhill, Peter A.; Scharfe, Curt; Torroni, Antonio; Scozzari, Rosaria; Modiano, David; Coppa, Alfredo; de Knijff, Peter; Feldman, Marcus; Cavall (2006). The Role of Selection in the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial Genomes. Genetics, 172(1), 373-387.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup C
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup C
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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Last Updated: Last updated: January 1, 2019 at 12:39 pm