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Age: 29,982.5 ± 6,729.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: 2156.1A T3999C C12876T
Parent Branch: M31
Descendant branch(s): M31a1 M31a2


Haplogroup M31a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 23,300 and 36,700 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup M31a Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01M31a3999 12876Released 27 Aug 2008
02M31a3999 12876Released 14 Oct 2008
03M31a3999 12876Released 1 Mar 2009
04M31a3999 12876Released 10 May 2009
05M31a3999 12876Released 8 Jul 2009
06M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 28 Sep 2009
07M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 10 Nov 2009
08M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 21 Mar 2010
09M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 20 Jun 2010
10M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 10 Aug 2010
11M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 7 Feb 2011
12M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 20 Jul 2011
13M31a2156.1A 3999 12876Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14M31a2156.1A T3999C C12876TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15M31a2156.1A T3999C C12876TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16M31a2156.1A T3999C C12876TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17M31a2156.1A T3999C C12876TReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup M31a Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

-001-11-30T00:00:00+00:00June 6th, 2016|