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Age: 22,276.0 ± 6,105.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G94A T204C A12172G A16318t
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: M28
Descendant branch(s): M28b1


Haplogroup M28b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 16,200 and 28,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

mtDNA Haplogroup M28b Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01M28b94 204 12172Released 27 Aug 2008
02M28b94 204 12172Released 14 Oct 2008
03M28b94 204 12172Released 1 Mar 2009
04M28b94 204 12172Released 10 May 2009
05M28b94 204 12172Released 8 Jul 2009
06M28b94 204 12172Released 28 Sep 2009
07M28b94 204 12172Released 10 Nov 2009
08M28b94 204 12172Released 21 Mar 2010
09M28b94 204 12172Released 20 Jun 2010
10M28b94 204 12172Released 10 Aug 2010
11M28b94 204 12172Released 7 Feb 2011
12M28b94 204 12172Released 20 Jul 2011
13M28b94 204 12172Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14M28bG94A T204C A12172G A16129G!!Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15M28bG94A T204C A12172G A16318tReleased 30 Sep 2012
16M28bG94A T204C A12172G A16318tReleased 19 Feb 2014
17M28bG94A T204C A12172G A16318tReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup M28b Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5011763Merriwether et al., 2005M28b:16318TM28b:203, 315.1CC, 508, 539, 574d, 1462, 3535, 4541, 6815, 9731A, 9944, 10670, 15739, 16093, 16318C
Hap5011764Merriwether et al., 2005noneM28b:309.1C, 315.1C, 2135, 2280, 3808, 5772, 5951, 12373, 12507, 13754, 16291
Hap5021324Duggan et al., 2014bM28b:16311M28b:203, 524.1AC, 2065, 9135, 13479, 15553, 15662, 16086
Hap5021415Duggan et al., 2014bM28b:16311M28b:203, 2065, 9135, 13479, 15553, 15662, 16086
Hap5021789Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28b:524.1AC, 2135, 5951, 12373, 12507, 13754, 16291

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

-001-11-30T00:00:00+00:00June 6th, 2016|