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M

Background

Haplogroup M is a major branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup L3. It was likely born between Africa and Asia around 50,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)

Out of Africa Waves - Wikipedia

Out of Africa Waves

Origin

The M lineage may have been born in either far northeastern Africa or in West Asia. Many members of this lineage were part of the Out-of-Africa movement between 50,000 and 70,000 years ago. Some members continued on that path. Others turned and took part in a back migration into Africa. This makes it hard to tell the exact place of origin.

Age

Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the M lineage between 47,800 and 51,400 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. People were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

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Timeline

This timeline is an overview of the M branch's history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the M lineage. (View in new tab.)

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: M
Age: About 65,000 Years Ago
Origin: Asia or Africa
Blurb: This branch of your direct maternal ancestors' journey began where East Africa meets Asia. Between 60,000 and 70,000 years ago, people with this lineage traveled from Africa across the Horn of Africa to Asia. This crossing marked the start of a long coastal migration eastward across West and South Asia. Travelers eventually reached all the way to Australia and Polynesia. It was one of the first successful expansions of modern humans out of Africa, and these intrepid travelers are the forebears of many world populations.Although this line is part of populations at high frequencies east of the Arabian Peninsula (about 15 percent), members of this group are almost entirely absent in the Levant. To the north, in Central Asia, this line is part of the populations at moderate frequencies in Central Asia, around 10 to 15 percent.This lineage is prevalent among populations living in the southern parts of Pakistan and northwest India, where it is 30 to 50 percent of the population. However, in the Indus Valley, this branch has a low frequency and a high level of diversity. This indicates that this lineage in this area is the legacy of early Paleolithic settlers who later groups partly replaced.

Interest Point: This branch and its sister branch are the only two founding lineages to expand out of Africa.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup M Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build#CalledMutationsNotes
01M489 10400 14783 15043Released 27 Aug 2008
02M489 10400 14783 15043Released 14 Oct 2008
03M489 10400 14783 15043Released 1 Mar 2009
04M489 10400 14783 15043Released 10 May 2009
05M489 10400 14783 15043Released 8 Jul 2009
06M489 10400 14783 15043Released 28 Sep 2009
07M489 10400 14783 15043Released 10 Nov 2009
08M489 10400 14783 15043Released 21 Mar 2010
09M489 10400 14783 15043Released 20 Jun 2010
10M489 10400 14783 15043Released 10 Aug 2010
11M489 10400 14783 15043Released 7 Feb 2011
12M489 10400 14783 15043Released 20 Jul 2011
14MT489C C10400T T14783C G15043AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15MT489C C10400T T14783C G15043AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16MT489C C10400T T14783C G15043AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17MT489C C10400T T14783C G15043AReleased 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup M Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5008967Fornarino et al., 2009M:195, 16189M:315.1C, 930, 3714, 4973, 6203, 10084, 10310, 14374, 16215, 16368
Hap5011703Li 2006M:10400M:249d, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 856, 5093, 8414, 8701, 10398, 10410, 12705, 14692, 16224, 16245, 16292
Hap5012453Rajkumar et al., 2005M:195M:315.1C, 4012, 10598, 10619, 10739, 11278, 15172, 16272, 16325
Hap5012458Rajkumar et al., 2005noneM:199, 315.1C, 5432, 9300, 10670, 15938, 16251, 16267
Hap5014484Sun et al., 2006noneM:103, 315.1C, 513, 629, 2755, 4943, 5990, 8270, 8281-8289d, 8623, 8674, 10685, 12016, 14552, 15519, 15924, 16223, 16290

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Country
Mother's
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Maternal
Origin
Hap10069860UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecified
Hap10069861UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecified
Hap10069862UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecified
Hap10069863UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecified
Hap10069864UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecified

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Sources & Resources

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

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Keywords

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Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 16:02 pm

2018-10-08T16:02:45+00:00June 6th, 2016|
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