A Eurasian mtDNA Haplogroup



Age: 49,590.1 ± 1,824.0; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Eurasia
Variants: T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A
FTDNA Tree: Link
Parent Branch: L3
Descendant branch(s): M1’20’51 M10 M11 M12’G M13’46’61 M14 M15 M17 M19’53 M2 M21 M22 M23’75 M24’41 M25 M26 M27 M28 M29’Q M3 M31 M32’56 M33 M34’57 M35 M36 M39’70 M4″67 M40 M42’74 M44 M47 M48 M49 M5 M50 M52 M55’77 M58 M59 M6 M60 M62’68 M69 M7 M71 M72 M73’79 M76 M8 M80’D M81 M9 M91

YFull Info

Name: M
Age: 67600 to 59600 ybp [95% CI]
Expansion: -
 Variants: T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A

Note: This information does not imply an endorsement of YFull or their methods. It is provided at the request of readers.

Haplogroup M is a major branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup L3. It was likely born between Africa and Asia around 50,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)

Out of Africa Waves - Wikipedia
Out of Africa Waves


The M lineage may have been born in either far northeastern Africa or in West Asia. Many members of this lineage were part of the Out-of-Africa movement between 50,000 and 70,000 years ago. Some members continued on that path. Others turned and took part in a back migration into Africa. This makes it hard to tell the exact place of origin.


Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the M lineage between 47,800 and 51,400 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. People were using stone tools.

Ancient DNA

Coming Soon


This timeline is an overview of the M branch’s history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the M lineage. (View in new tab.)

National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text

Haplogroup: M
Age: About 65,000 Years Ago
Origin: Asia or Africa
Blurb: This branch of your direct maternal ancestors’ journey began where East Africa meets Asia. Between 60,000 and 70,000 years ago, people with this lineage traveled from Africa across the Horn of Africa to Asia. This crossing marked the start of a long coastal migration eastward across West and South Asia. Travelers eventually reached all the way to Australia and Polynesia. It was one of the first successful expansions of modern humans out of Africa, and these intrepid travelers are the forebears of many world populations.Although this line is part of populations at high frequencies east of the Arabian Peninsula (about 15 percent), members of this group are almost entirely absent in the Levant. To the north, in Central Asia, this line is part of the populations at moderate frequencies in Central Asia, around 10 to 15 percent.This lineage is prevalent among populations living in the southern parts of Pakistan and northwest India, where it is 30 to 50 percent of the population. However, in the Indus Valley, this branch has a low frequency and a high level of diversity. This indicates that this lineage in this area is the legacy of early Paleolithic settlers who later groups partly replaced.

Interest Point: This branch and its sister branch are the only two founding lineages to expand out of Africa.

Author: Rebekah A. Canada | Copyright: National Geographic

mtDNA Haplogroup M Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Variants (Mutations) Notes
01 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 10 May 2009
05 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 M 489 10400 14783 15043 Released 20 Jul 2011
14 M T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 M T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A Released 30 Sep 2012
16 M T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A Released 19 Feb 2014
17 M T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A Released 18 Feb 2016

mtDNA Haplogroup M Data Sources

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing results over to build 17.

Hg IDOriginPublicationHg BLD16 Hg BLD17 Hg YFullMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5008967 India Fornarino et al., 2009 M M* M:195, 16189 M:315.1C, 930, 3714, 4973, 6203, 10084, 10310, 14374, 16215, 16368
Hap5011703 - Li 2006 M - M:10400 M:249d, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 856, 5093, 8414, 8701, 10398, 10410, 12705, 14692, 16224, 16245, 16292
Hap5012453 Rajkumar et al., 2005 M M* M:195 M:315.1C, 4012, 10598, 10619, 10739, 11278, 15172, 16272, 16325
Hap5012458 Rajkumar et al., 2005 M M* none M:199, 315.1C, 5432, 9300, 10670, 15938, 16251, 16267
Hap5014484 Sun et al., 2006 M M* none M:103, 315.1C, 513, 629, 2755, 4943, 5990, 8270, 8281-8289d, 8623, 8674, 10685, 12016, 14552, 15519, 15924, 16223, 16290

Sources & Resources

Related Sources


Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.


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