Haplogroup M is a major branch on the maternal tree of human kind. It is a child of haplogroup L3. It was likely born between Africa and Asia around 50,000 years ago. (Behar et al., 2012b)
The M lineage may have been born in either far northeastern Africa or in West Asia. Many members of this lineage were part of the Out-of-Africa movement between 50,000 and 70,000 years ago. Some members continued on that path. Others turned and took part in a back migration into Africa. This makes it hard to tell the exact place of origin.
Behar et al., 2012b placed the birth of the M lineage between 47,800 and 51,400 years ago. This means the line was born in the Upper Paleolithic. People were using stone tools.
This timeline is an overview of the M branch’s history from the first early people to the birth of the first woman from the M lineage. (View in new tab.)
National Geographic Geno 2.0 Text
mtDNA Haplogroup M Phylotree History
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||M||489 10400 14783 15043||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|14||M||T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||M||T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||M||T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||M||T489C C10400T T14783C G15043A||Released 18 Feb 2016|
mtDNA Haplogroup M Data Sources
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Origin||Publication||Hg BLD16||Hg BLD17||Hg YFull||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5008967||India||Fornarino et al., 2009||M||M*||M:195, 16189||M:315.1C, 930, 3714, 4973, 6203, 10084, 10310, 14374, 16215, 16368|
|Hap5011703||-||Li 2006||M||-||M:10400||M:249d, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 856, 5093, 8414, 8701, 10398, 10410, 12705, 14692, 16224, 16245, 16292|
|Hap5012453||Rajkumar et al., 2005||M||M*||M:195||M:315.1C, 4012, 10598, 10619, 10739, 11278, 15172, 16272, 16325|
|Hap5012458||Rajkumar et al., 2005||M||M*||none||M:199, 315.1C, 5432, 9300, 10670, 15938, 16251, 16267|
|Hap5014484||Sun et al., 2006||M||M*||none||M:103, 315.1C, 513, 629, 2755, 4943, 5990, 8270, 8281-8289d, 8623, 8674, 10685, 12016, 14552, 15519, 15924, 16223, 16290|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
Sources & Resources
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American journal of human genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Fornarino, Simona; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; Maranta, Ramona; Achilli, Alessandro; Modiano, Guido; Torroni, Antonio; Semino, Ornella & Benerecetti, Silvana S. (2009). Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9(1), 154+.
- Li, S (2006). A Direct Submission to GenBank by Li in 2006. , unpublished, unpublished.
- Rajkumar, R., Banerjee, J., Gunturi, H.B., Trivedi, R. and Kashyap, V.K. (2005). Phylogeny and antiquity of M macrohaplogroup inferred from complete mt DNA sequence of Indian specific lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 5(1), 1.
- Sun, C., Kong, Q.P., gounder Palanichamy, M., Agrawal, S., Bandelt, H.J., Yao, Y.G., Khan, F., Zhu, C.L., Chaudhuri, T.K. and Zhang, Y.P. (2006). The Dazzling Array of Basal Branches in the mtDNA Macrohaplogroup M from India as Inferred from Complete Genomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23(3), .
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan’s mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan’s Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick’s mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup M
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup M
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
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Last Updated: Last updated: October 8, 2018 at 16:02 pm