///David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

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David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

My search for descendants of David Cannady of Livingston county and McCracken county in Kentucky begins with looking at the records for him in the federal census. This search is a key part in my 2018 goals for Big Y DNA testing and the CANADA surname branch of my family.

The United States federal government conducts a population census every ten years. Each year it is done, the questions asked change a little. The early census records are pretty basic, and by 1850, there are plenty of details. This does not, of course, mean that we should not look at early census records.

David Cannady lived most of his life in the area around Salem, Kentucky. Here is what Wikipedia has to say about Salem.

The city is believed to have been settled c. 1800 by immigrants from Salem, North Carolina, who named their new community after their former home. It replaced Centerville as Livingston Co.'s seat in 1809 but was replaced in turn by Smithland in 1842 after the removal of Crittenden Co. left it more centrally-located.

Thus, we know that David was in the county seat of Livingston County, Kentucky about twenty years after the town was founded. Was David's family part of that original settlement from Salem, North Carolina? Did they come later?

Here is Kentucky in 1800 around the time Salem was founded. I used a map at https://www.mapofus.org/kentucky/ and blocked off the western part of Kentucky. This is an area defined by waterways.

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

County Boundaries in 1800 (https://www.mapofus.org/kentucky/)

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Livingston county was a much larger area when it was first formed. In 1800, the western part of Kentucky was still Chickasaw lands. Illinois is to the North of Livingston county, and Missouri is to the Northwest and West.

The 1820 Census

By 1820, the Chickasaw lands were taken, and they were divided with the northern part half becoming part of Livingston County.

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

County Boundaries in 1820 (https://www.mapofus.org/kentucky/)

Record: Fourth Census of the United States, 1820. (NARA microfilm publication M33, 142 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Access: Films and original records are held by the US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Images were created by FamilySearch. I viewed the images on the Ancestry.com website.
Location: Salem, Livingston, Kentucky
Page: 10
Line: 20
Date: August 7, 1820
Roll: M33_26
Image: 22

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

Using the questions list for 1820 the household was:

Name: David Kennedy

Free white males

Less than 10 years: –

10 to 15 years: –

16 to 17 years: –

16 to 25 years: –

26 to 44 years: 2

45 years and upward: –

Free white females

Less than 10 years: 2

10 to 15 years: 1

16 to 17 years: –

16 to 25 years: –

26 to 44 years: –

45 years and upward: –

Then

Foreigners not naturalized: –

Numbers of persons engaged in Agriculture: 5

Numbers of persons engaged in Commerce: –

Numbers of persons engaged in Manufactures: –

Slaves

All fields are blank for the family.

Free Colored Persons

All fields are blank for the family.

As the head of household, David must be one of the two men listed as between 25 and 45. Interestingly, there are not adult females in the family. There are three girls. One is between 10 and 16 and two are under 10.

How do I interpret this? I can make a guess knowing that I could be completely wrong. I think that this is David with his younger siblings. Thus, I draw out a genogram with the Progeny Genetics tool.David Cannady 1820 Genogram

The 1830 Census

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

County Boundaries in 1830 (https://www.mapofus.org/kentucky/)

In 1830, David Cannady is still in Salem, Kentucky. Salem was still the county seat. It took me some time to find him, because he was originally indexed as David Henada. I believe the record actually reads Kenada.

The ages of household members are broken up a bit more, and the family structure looks much more like a nuclear family.

Record: Fifth Census of the United States, 1830. (NARA microfilm publication M19, 201 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Access: Films and original records are held by the US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Images were created by FamilySearch with their copies of the films (their roll #0007818). I viewed the images on the Ancestry.com website.
Location: Salem, Livingston, Kentucky
Page: 10
Line: 23
Date: ?
Roll: 39
Image: 17 of 28

Image:David Cannady 1830

If you are new to genealogy, I am going to let you in on a little secret. Sometimes what Ancestry abstracts out of images does not match up. This is the case here where they got the total number of people and a few other things wrong. There are seven people in the family and not six: four males and three females. One should always look at the original image.

Using the 1830 census questions the household was:

Head: David Kenada

Males

Under 5: 2

5 to 9: 1

10 to 14: –

15 to 19: –

20 to 29: 1

30 to 39: –

Female

Under 5: 1

5 to 9: –

10 to 14: 1

15 to 19: –

20 to 29: 1

30 to 39: –

Slaves

None in this family.

Free Colored Persons

None in this family.

I believe the household is made up of David, his wife, their children, and one of David's sisters. This is the genogram for the family in 1830.David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

The 1840 Census

The boundaries of Livingston are they same in 1840 as they were in 1830.

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

County Boundaries in 1840 (https://www.mapofus.org/kentucky/)

By 1840, David Cannady was living in Swingslow, Kentucky. No. He was not. Really, the indexing of the 1840 census was mucked up by turning the greater Livingston county district into Swingslow in the index. There is no such place as Swingslow. In all likelihood, David was living in the exact same place he lived in 1830.

Record: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840. (NARA microfilm publication M704, 580 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Access: Films and original records are held by the US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Images were created by FamilySearch with their copies of the films (their roll #0007829). I viewed the images on the Ancestry.com website. I then went to the FamilySearch.org website and viewed images there, because the Cannady on Ancestry was too hard to read. I could also have checked Find My Past.
Location: Livingston District, Livingston, Kentucky
Page: 172
Line: 6
Date: ?
Roll: 117
Image: 26 of 33 at Ancestry; 23 of 36 at FamilySearch

Ancestry

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

FamilySearch


David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

Using the 1840 census questions the household was:

Head: David Cannady

Males

Under 5: 1

5 to 9: 1

10 to 14: 2

15 to 19: –

20 to 29: –

30 to 39: –

40 to 49: 1

50 to 59: –

Female

Under 5: 1

5 to 9: 1

10 to 14: 1

15 to 19: –

20 to 29: –

30 to 39: 1

40 to 49: –

Slaves

None in this family.

Free Colored Persons

None in this family.

This now seems to be David, his wife, and their children. Here is the genogram.

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

The 1850 Census

Since 1840, the eastern part of Livingston has been turned into Crittenden county.

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

County Boundaries in 1850 (https://www.mapofus.org/kentucky/)

The 1850 census was the first federal census to include all household members' names. It was also the last one in which David appears.

For the first time, I know he had to have moved. In 1850, he was living in McCracken county, Kentucky. McCracken is to the west of Livingston county. Still along the river, it is part of what was once Chickasaw lands.

Record: Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Access: Films and original records are held by the US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Images were created by FamilySearch. I viewed the images on the Ancestry.com website.
Location: District 2, McCracken, Kentucky
Page: 165B and 166A
Line: 39 – 42 and
Date: 3 Aug 1850
Roll: M432_211
Image: 336

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

David Cannady 1850, page 165B

David Cannady 2

David Cannady 1850, 166A

From the 1850 questions:

Dwelling, Family, Name, Age, Sex, Race, Occupation, Property value, Birthplace, Married within the year, Attended school, Unable to read/write

72, 72, David Canada, 49, M, -, Farmer, -, North Carolina, -, -, I, –

-, -, Cinthia Canada, 44, F, -, -, -, Georgia, -, -, I, –

-, -, Allen Canada, 22, M, -, Farmer, -, Kentucky, -, -, -, –

-, -, Martha Canada, 19, F, -, -, -, Kentucky, -, -, -, –

-, -, Samuel Canada, 15, M, -, -, -, Kentucky, -, -, -, –

-, -, Harriet Canada, 10, F, -, -, -, Kentucky, -, -, -, –

-, -, Ann Canada, 7, F, -, -, -, Illinois, -, -, -, –

-, -, Briant Canada, 5, M, -, -, -, Illinois, -, -, -, –

-, -, Elvy Canada, 1, F, -, -, -, Kentucky, -, -, -, –

The birth places of two children, Ann and Briant, tell us that there must have been another move between census years. They were born in Illinois. I suspect the family spent several years on the northern side of the river not far from the boarder, as I have seen several families from this area freely move back and forth.

This is the genogram for the family in 1850.

David Cannady in the U.S. Federal Census

Family reconstruction

Finally, it is time to put the different census years together into one family tree.

David Cannady Family Census Reconstruction

David Cannady

As the head of household, David has the best records across all years. His name was given as:

1820: David Kennedy
1830: David Kenada
1840: David Cannady
1850: David Canada

I tend to think of him as David Cannady. It may be because that was the first way I ever saw his name written in correspondence with other family genealogists.

His age was given as:

1820: 26 to 44
1830: 20 to 29
1840: 40 to 49
1850: 49

Depending on the month when he was born and the day when the census was taken each year, the latter three ages are consistent with a birthday sometime in the late summer or early fall of 1801. The 1820 age is too high. Considering that he was about 18 or 19 in 1820, it could have been that he –and his brother– gave the census taker an age high enough to be over the age of majority under common law.

From the 1850 census, we have that David was born in North Carolina.

David's brother

David's brother appears with the family in only the 1820 census. Not being the head of household, he does not have a name. His age is given as 26 to 44. This is almost sure to be older than he actually was.

David's sisters

In the 1820 census, David had three sisters who lived with him. In the 1830 census, he had one. I believe that the youngest from the 1820 census was the one still living with him in 1830. The older two were old enough to have married by 1830. None of their names are known. Their birth years are:

Sister 1: 1805 to 1810 per the 1820 census
Sister 2: 1810 to 1820 per the 1820 census
Sister 3: 1810 to 1820 per the 1820 census then 1820 to 1816 per the 1830 census, so 1820 to 1816.

David's wife

Cinthia's name is only in the 1850 census for these years. Additional information will need to come from other sources. Her age was:

1830: 20 to 29
1840: 30 to 39
1850: 44

This is consistent with her being born around 1806. From the 1850 census, she was born in Georgia.

David's sons

From census records, David had six sons.

Little is known about the oldest. He is only in the 1830 census with an age of 5 to 9. This places his birth about 1821 to 1825. Because he is not in the 1840 census, he is either dead by then or has left home.

The second son was in the 1830 and 1840 census. His age was respectively under 5 and 10 to 14 each year. This puts his birth about 1826 to 1830. This is the son who could maybe be my Seaborn Smith Canada.

The third son was Allen Cannady. His age was:

1830: Under 5
1840: 10 to 14
1850: 22

All are consistent with his being born around 1828. From the 1850 census, he was born in Kentucky.

David's fourth son was Samuel Cannady. His name comes from the 1850 census. He was in the 1840 and 1850 census. His age was:

1840: Under 5
1850: 15

This is consistent with his being born around 1834 or 1835. From the 1850 census, he was born in Kentucky.

The fifth son was another unknown. He was in the 1840 census in an age bracket that places his birth between 1836 and 1840. However, he is not in the 1850 census. Unless he left home very young, he was likely a child death.

The sixth son was Briant Cannady. His name comes from the 1850 census as does his age of five at the time. He was then born around 1845.

David's daughters

David had five daughters.

His first daughter is unnamed. In 1830 her age was given as Less than 10 years. In 1840, it was 10 to 14 years. That puts her birth between 1826 and 1830.

His second daughter was Martha. Her age was:

1840: 5 to 9
1850: 19

From these, her birth was around 1831. From the 1850 census, she was born in Kentucky.

The third daughter was Harriet. Her age was:

1840: Under 5
1850: 10

These fit with her birth in 1839 or 1840. From the 1850 census, she was born in Kentucky.

The fourth daughter was Ann. In the 1850 census, she was 7 and born in Illinois. Her birth would have been about 1843.

The fifth daughter was Elvy. She was 1 year old in the 1850 census, and was born in Kentucky. Her birth was likely late 1848 or 1849.

Next Steps

For my next step in building out the family, I will look at Livingston county marriage records including that of David and Cinthia.


2018-03-05T11:37:01+00:00January 18th, 2018|Categories: News|Tags: , |
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