Y-DNA Genealogy Tools & Resources

The following is a brief list of tools and resources to help genetic genealogy using Y-chromosome DNA. A copy of this list is also in the files section of the Y-DNA – Applied Genealogy & Paternal Origins group on Facebook.

Skhul - Wikipedia

Y-chromosomal Adam

Y-Chromosome Adam is a term from population genetics for the common paternal ancestor of all men living today. For genetic genealogy, it is useful as the root of the human Y-DNA tree.

Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium - Wikipedia

Linkage disequilibrium

Linkage disequilibrium describes any case in population genetics where the frequency of two alleles being found together implies a non-random association. That is, the odds of both alleles happening together is not random.

Buccal Swab


Genetic genealogy DNA test kits use saliva samples to collect DNA from dead cells inside our mouths. Test kits from and 23andMe use spit collection tubes while Living DNA and FamilyTreeDNA use swabs.



An X-match is a genetic match that shares a relevant DNA segment on the X-chromosome. Because the X-chromosome follows a different inheritance pattern than autosomal DNA, X-matches are highly significant for some genealogy applications.

JoGG Logo

Journal of Genetic Genealogy (JoGG)

The Journal of Genetic Genealogy (JoGG) is a peer reviewed journal dedicated to the topics of genetic genealogy and population genetic citizen science. Its editor in chief is Dr. Leah Larkin.

Imputation - Wikipedia (Estonia)


Genetic imputation is the process of determining untested genetic markers in an individual using their tested markers and haplotypes from reference samples.

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