Q-F1096 has branches that reach across Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. It is also found in the Americas, which is something of a surprise. Alessandro, Vladimir, and I have worked on tree updates. Below is the first draft of the new tree with the methods I outlined before and background on the Native Americas branches of Q-F1096 discovered in the past few years.
Rasmussen et al., 2010 – A Paleo-Eskimo in Greenland
In 2010, the draft genome of a Paleo-Eskimo from Greenland was published. The authors sequenced hair found in permafrost. They calculated it to be 4,000 years old and suggested that it came from a Paleo-Eskimo linked to a late migration to the new world around 5,500 years ago. The sequence was re-evaluated by YFull. It belongs to Q-NGQ10 (aka Q-YP1500). This is one of the two branches under Q-F746.
Dulik et al., 2012 – The Northwest Territories
In 2012, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania sequenced members of the Gwich’in, Inuvialuit, and Tłįchǫ Native peoples in the Northwest territory of Canada. They found a marker, NWT01, that marked a separate lineage from other Y-DNA Qs in the Americas. Thanks to the National Geographic Genographic project's Geno 2.0 test and BIG Y results, we know that NWT01 is an equivalent Y-SNP on the Q-F746 branch.
In consideration of the Q-NGQ10 branch, it would be interesting to know if any of these samples are NGQ10+. If so, then the Paleo-Eskimo of Greenland is far from extinct. If not, they mark a third and fourth line of Q in the Americas.
Raghavan et al., 2014 – An Ancient Asian Genome
In 2014, a team of scientists sequenced the Afontova Gora 2 genome. Based on the Y-DNA Tree at the time, they found the sample, AF2, to be a member of haplogroup Q. Based on the current tree and reanalysis by YFull, the sample is Q-F746.
Gurianov et al., 2015 – Revisiting the Northwest Territories
In 2015, Vladimir Gurianov presented his findings at a conference showing the connections between the findings above and four samples from the Koryak village of Evensk in Northeastern Siberia.
The Peruvian Q-M120
One of the 1K Genomes samples, HG01944, from Peruvians in Lima, Peru belongs to Q-M120. Q-M120 is the other branch under Q-F746. It is best known as an East Asian branch of Q. This is intriguing, if it is not post colonial admixture, it will mark a fourth or fifth Q lineage in the Americas.
The Initial Draft of the New Q-F1096 Tree
Thank you for being part of the project.
R.A. Canada and the Q-M242 Team
- Adamov, D., Guryanov, V., Karzhavin, S., Tagankin, V., & Urasin, V. (2015). Defining a New Rate Constant for Y-Chromosome SNPs based on Full Sequencing Data. The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Русская версия), 68-89.
- Dulik, M. C., Owings, A. C., Gaieski, J. B., Vilar, M. G., Andre, A., Lennie, C., … & Martin, J. (2012). Y-chromosome analysis reveals genetic divergence and new founding native lineages in Athapaskan-and Eskimoan-speaking populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(22), 8471-8476.
- Jota, M.S., Lacerda, D.R., Sandoval, J.R., Vieira, P.P.R., Santos‐Lopes, S.S., Bisso‐Machado, R., Paixão‐Cortes, V.R., Revollo, S., Fujita, R., Salzano, F.M. and Bonatto, S.L., (2011). A new subhaplogroup of native American Y‐Chromosomes from the Andes. American journal of physical anthropology, 146(4), 553-559.
- Jota, M. S., Lacerda, D. R., Sandoval, J. R., Vieira, P. P. R., Ohasi, D., Santos-Júnior, J. E., … & Fujita, R. (2016). New native South American Y chromosome lineages. Journal of human genetics.
- Karmin, M., Saag, L., Vicente, M., Sayres, M.A.W., Järve, M., Talas, U.G., Rootsi, S., Ilumäe, A.M., Mägi, R., Mitt, M. and Pagani, L., (2015). A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture. Genome research, 25(4), 459-466.
- Malyarchuk, B., Derenko, M., Denisova, G., Maksimov, A., Wozniak, M., Grzybowski, T., Dambueva, I. and Zakharov, I., (2011). Ancient links between Siberians and Native Americans revealed by subtyping the Y chromosome haplogroup Q1a. Journal of human genetics, 56(8), 583-588.
- Raghavan, M., Skoglund, P., Graf, K. E., Metspalu, M., Albrechtsen, A., Moltke, I., … & Karmin, M. (2014). Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans. Nature, 505(7481), 87-91.
- Rasmussen, M., Li, Y., Lindgreen, S., Pedersen, J. S., Albrechtsen, A., Moltke, I., … & Bertalan, M. (2010). Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo. Nature, 463(7282), 757-762.
- Rasmussen, M., Anzick, S. L., Waters, M. R., Skoglund, P., DeGiorgio, M., Stafford Jr, T. W., … & Poznik, G. D. (2014). The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana. Nature, 506(7487), 225-229.
- Gurianov, V. M., (2015). Who were the Paleo-Eskimo Saqqaq? Vavilov Institute of General Genetics – Conference Paper.