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Genetic studies of the peopling of the Americas: What insights do diachronic mitochondrial genome datasets provide?

Here we briefly review the evidence for current hypotheses on the peopling process of the Americas and discuss how ancient mitochondrial DNA can provide a unique temporal perspective.

2017-06-22T13:52:27+00:00 June 22nd, 2017|

Antiquity of mtDNA lineage D1g from the southern cone of South America supports pre-Clovis migration

The discovery of the Monte Verde site was revolutionary; it led to wide acceptance of the pre-Clovis hypothesis and its corollary, the coastal migration route. Although numerous additional pre-Clovis sites have been reported in South America, debate continues about the timing of the earliest human migration. Perhaps because of the paucity of very early sites in North America, researchers there are increasingly focused on the genomic evidence.

2017-06-17T16:46:01+00:00 June 17th, 2017|

Ancient genomes from southern Africa pushes modern human divergence beyond 260,000 years ago

The genome sequence (13x coverage) of a juvenile boy from Ballito Bay, who lived ~2,000 years ago, demonstrates that southern African Stone Age hunter-gatherers were not impacted by recent admixture; however, we estimate that all modern-day Khoekhoe and San groups have been influenced by 9-22% genetic admixture from East African/Eurasian pastoralist groups arriving >1,000 years ago, including the Ju|'hoansi San, previously thought to have very low levels of admixture.

2017-06-06T11:16:41+00:00 June 6th, 2017|

Y chromosomal deletion pattern in Koreans inhabiting Jeju Island

Therefore, detailed analysis of mutations of Y chromosome genes might provide information for personal identification or analysis of phylogenetic history. In Y-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis tests on 668 habitants of Jeju Island, the largest island in the Korean peninsula located apart from the mainland, a deletion at DYS448 was found in 10 samples.

2017-06-06T10:43:10+00:00 June 6th, 2017|

Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3b-F1756, an important paternal lineage in Altaic-speaking populations

This paternal lineage (temporarily named C3*-DYS448del) was determined to be M217+, M93–, P39–, M48–, M407–, and P53.1–, and its origin and phylogeny remain ambiguous. Here, we analyzed Y-chromosome sequences of 10 male that are related this paternal lineage and redefined it as C3b1a1a1a-F1756 (C3b-F1756).

2017-06-06T10:32:05+00:00 June 6th, 2017|

Fast STR allele identification with STRait Razor 3.0

STRait Razor v3.0 performs ∼660 x faster allele identification than its previous version (v2s), a speedup that is largely due to a novel indexing strategy used to perform “fuzzy” (approximate) string matching of anchor sequences. Written in a portable compiled language, C + +, STRait Razor v3.0 functions on all major operating systems including Microsoft Windows, and it has cross-platform multithreading support.

2017-06-07T18:56:50+00:00 June 6th, 2017|

Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup R colonized Eurasia and Australasia from a southeast Asia core area

Coeval independently dispersals around 50 kya of the West Asia haplogroup U and the Wallacea haplogroup P, points to a halfway core area in southeast Asia as the most probable centre of expansion of macrohaplogroup R, what fits in the phylogeographic pattern of its ancestor, macrohaplogroup N, for which a northern route and a southeast Asian origin has been already proposed.

2017-05-27T08:22:26+00:00 May 27th, 2017|

An updated age for the Xujiayao hominin from the Nihewan Basin, North China: Implications for Middle Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia

The Xujiayao site in the Nihewan Basin (North China) is one of the most important Paleolithic sites in East Asia... Here, we report new ages for the Xujiayao hominin... dating results indicate a pooled average age of 260–370 ka for the Homo-bearing layer, which is consistent with its position within the middle Brunhes normal polarity chron indicated by magnetostratigraphy. This age estimate makes the Xujiayao hominin among the oldest mid-Pleistocene hominins with derived Neanderthal traits in East Asia.

2017-05-09T12:40:36+00:00 May 9th, 2017|

Direct radiocarbon dating and DNA analysis of the Darra-i-Kur (Afghanistan) human temporal bone

The temporal bone discovered in the 1960s from the Darra-i-Kur cave in Afghanistan is often cited as one of the very few Pleistocene human fossils from Central Asia. Here we report the first direct radiocarbon date for the specimen and the genetic analyses of DNA extracted and sequenced from two areas of the bone.

2017-05-09T11:40:34+00:00 May 9th, 2017|