I am continuing from my previous post about updating the Native American Q-M3 branch of the paternal (Y-DNA) Tree. The Alessandro, Vladimir, and I have been busy verifying branches and removing those that are not suitable for inclusion on a stable tree. As outlined before, we are excluding the use of Y-SNPs that are recurrent and branches that are defined only by recurrent Y-SNPs.

The new Q-M3 Draft Tree is below. It is the product of twenty-four BIG Y and Walk Through the Y tests. Even more though, it is also the product of larger sequencing efforts like 1K Genomes, the Human Genetic Diversity Project, the Simons Genetic Diversity Project, focused research groups like the ones at Penn State and Stanford, and every single Native American who has entrusted the researchers and the world with their genetics.

Q-M3 Next Steps

Meanwhile, Amy is working with Family Tree DNA to get as many of the reference samples shown on the tree as possible. These alongside BIG Y and historic Walk Through the Y results will be used as positive controls to validate the Q-M3 SNP Pack. We know that we may not be able to get all samples, and some branches may no longer have viable. We will do our best though to make sure we promote a stable credible tree and valuable SNP Pack product.

I will be evaluating each Y-SNP on each branch for quality and reliability. I checked Vladimir’s file of potential new Y-SNPs. There are now over 9,000 Y-SNPs that need to be placed on the Q Tree.

Q-M3 Branch Descriptions

This is what we know about each of 121 branches under Q-M3. Later this month, I will research samples in the National Geographic Genographic research database for additional information.

Q-M3

The parent of all Q-M3 lineages. This branch traces its origins to either the far northwest of Asia or to the west of modern Canada.

Q-B34

Q-B34 is found in the Yupik of Novoye Chaplino. They are an Eskimo type people. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B36

Q-B36 is present in the Colla. The Colla are indigenous people of Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B37

Q-B37 is found in both the Colla people and the Calchaquíes of the Andes. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B38

Q-B38 is found in the Colla people. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B39

Q-B39 is found in the Calchaquíes people of the Andes. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B40

Q-B40 is found in the Colla people. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B41

Q-B41 is found in the Colla people. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B42

Q-B42 has been found in Peruvians from Lima, Peru and in the Wichis of Argentina. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B43

Q-B42 is present in the Wichis of Argentina. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B44

Q-B42 is present in the Wichis of Argentina. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B45

Q-B42 is present in the Wichis of Argentina. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B46

Q-B46 is found in the Colla people. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B47

Q-B47 has been found in the Argentinian Cachis. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B49

Q-B49 is part of the population of the Calchaquíes people of the Andes. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-B50

Q-B50 is found in the Colla peoples of the Andes. (Karmin et al., 2015)

Q-BZ1045

Q-BZ1045 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in North Carolina, United States.

Q-BZ1075

Q-BZ1075 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in Mexico.

Q-BZ1180

Q-BZ1180 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in Georgia, United States.

Q-BZ1260

Q-BZ1260 is found in the Atlántico Norte people of Nicaragua.

Q-BZ1300

Q-BZ1300 is part of the Apache population in the North American Southwest. The Apache language is part of the Na-Dene Language family.

Q-BZ1600

Q-BZ1600 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in Oklahoma, North America.

Q-BZ1775

Q-BZ1600 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in Texas, United States.

Q-BZ1861

Q-BZ1861 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in Louisiana, United States.

Q-BZ1921

Q-BZ1921 is found in the Distrito Federal region of Mexico.

Q-BZ1980

Q-BZ1980 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in Mexico.

Q-BZ2029

Q-BZ2029 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in North Carolina, United States.

Q-BZ2700

Q-BZ2700 is a Native American lineage that is now part of the general population in Georgia, United States.

Q-BZ2727

Q-BZ2727 is a North American native lineage. It has been found in the Chowanoc Nation.

Q-BZ2741

Q-BZ2741 is a North American native line. It is part of the Wicocomico population. The Wicocomico speak a language that is part of the Algonquian Language Family.

Q-BZ910

Q-BZ910 has been found in San Luís Potosí, Mexico.

Q-CTS1002

Q-CTS1002 is a Native branch that has been found in both North and Central America.

Q-CTS10033

Q-CTS10033 is a Native branch that is present in both North and Central America. Members come from both men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California and those with Native ancestry from Utah, United States.

Q-CTS10274

Members of Q-CTS10274 come from men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-CTS1061

Members of Q-CTS1061 come from men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-CTS10620

Q-CTS10620 is present in men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-CTS10966

Members of Q-CTS10966 come from men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-CTS200

Members of Q-CTS200 come from men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-CTS2462

Members of Q-CTS2462 come from men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-CTS2731

Q-CTS2731 is present Native populations in both North and Central America. It has been found in Zapotec, Mexico, in men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California, and in men with Native ancestry from Texas, United States.

Q-CTS343

Members of Q-CTS343 come from men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-CTS4000

Q-CTS4000 has been found in Peruvians from Lima, Peru.

Q-CTS44

Q-CTS44 is present in the Colombian population from Medellin, Colombia.

Q-CTS6060

Q-CTS6060 is a Native branch that is present in both North and Central America. Members come from both men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California and those with Native ancestry from Utah, United States.

Q-CTS748

Q-CTS748 is a Native branch of the paternal tree. Descendant branches come from both North and Central America.

Q-L663

Q-L663 is a Native American lineage. It has been found in the general population of Utah, United States.

Q-L766

Q-L766 is a Native American lineage from the Southwestern United States.

Q-L883

Q-L883 comes from the historically Mayan population of Guatemala.

Q-L888

Q-L888 is a Native American lineage that has been found in the general population of New York, United States.

Q-M19

Q-M19 has been found in both the Ticuna and the Wayuu peoples of South America. The Wayuu people come from the Guajira Peninsula. The Ticuna come from the Brazilian Amazon. (Ruiz-Linares et al., 1999, Bortolini et al., 2003)

Q-M194

Q-M194 has been found in both the Ticuna and the Wayuu peoples of South America. The Wayuu people come from the Guajira Peninsula. The Ticuna come from the Brazilian Amazon. (Ruiz-Linares et al., 1999, Bortolini et al., 2003)

Q-M199

Q-M199 has been found in a South American population (Underhill et al., 2001)

Q-M557

Very little is known about the Q-M557 branch.

Q-M818

Very little is known about the Q-M818 branch.

Q-M848

Q-M848 marks the major split in Q-M3 lineages. This lineage may be the older of the two in the Americas. It is the less common branch in North America but is the more common branch in South America.

Q-M925

Q-M925’s distribution begins in the American Southwest and extends through Mexico in Central America.

Q-MG2

Very little is known about the Q-MG2 branch.

Q-PAGES104

Q-PAGES104 was discovered by the Page Lab while researching male infertility. Demographic information has not been published.

Q-PAGES131

Q-PAGES131 was discovered by the Page Lab while researching male infertility. Demographic information has not been published.

Q-PH40

Q-PH40 is present in Peruvian populations.

Q-SA01

Q-SA01 is present in the Andes of South America. (Jota et al., 2011)

Q-SA04

Q-SA04 is found among the Andeans of Ecuador, the Muniche, the Loreto of Peru, and Amazonians in Brazil. (Jota et al., 2016)

Q-SA05

Q-SA05 is present in Amazonians in Bolivia and Brazil. (Jota et al., 2016)

Q-V152

Little is known about Q-V152. The V152 Y-SNP may be recurrent. If so, it will be removed from the tree.

Q-Y10781

Q-Y10781 is present in men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California and in North American Apache.

Q-Y12421

Q-Y12421 is found in Colombians in Medellin, Colombia and in the Atlántico Norte of Nicaragua.

Q-Y18423

Q-Y18423 is found those with Native American ancestry living in North Carolina and Georgia in the United States.

Q-Y26467

Q-Y26467 is part of the male population in Zapotec, Mexico.

Q-Y265547

Q-Y265547 is found in the Brazilia and the Karitiana peoples of South America.

Q-Y27922

Q-Y27922 is found in the Chané people (Izoceño) of northern Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Bolivia. It is also present in men with Mexican ancestry in Los Angeles, California.

Q-Y4273

Q-Y4273 is present across the Algonquian speaking peoples of the eastern United States.

Q-Y4303

Q-Y4303 is present across the Algonquian speaking peoples of the eastern United States.

Q-Y4308

Q-Y4308 is one of the two major branches of Q-M3. So far, it has only been found in North American populations and in the Eskimo type peoples of far northeastern Asia. This suggests that it may be part of a second migration of Q-M3 lineages to the Americas.

Q-Y6131

Q-Y6131 is found in Native Americans who come from Algonquian speaking population that inhabited the NE coast of North America from Newfoundland south to North Carolina.

Q-Y780

Q-Y780 is present in Peruvians and the Collas people of Argentina.

Q-Y805

Q-Y805 is present in Peruvians and the Collas people of Argentina.

Q-YP1462

Q-YP1462 is found among the Chowanoc and Wicocomico peoples.

Q-YP4575

Q-YP4575 is part of the population of the Distrito Federal region in Mexico and men with Native ancestry in Louisiana, United States.

Q-YP4673

Q-YP4673 is found in the San Luís Potosí region of Mexico and in men with Native ancestry in Utah, United States.

Q-YP4722

Q-YP4722 is found in the Pima people who live in the Southwestern United States and in the population of Mexico.

Q-Z19299

Q-Z19299 is present in the Calchaquíes of the Andes and in Peruvians.

Q-Z19318

Q-Z19318 is present in the Calchaquíes of the Andes and in Peruvians.

Q-Z19319

Q-Z19319 is part of Native populations in South America. (Jota et al., 2016)

Q-Z35448

Q-Z35448 is found in Peru.

Q-Z35453

Q-Z35453 is found in Peru.

Q-Z35619

Q-Z35619 is found among the Collas of Argentina and in Peruvians from Lima, Peru.

Q-Z35621

Q-Z35621 is found in Peru.

Q-Z35624

Q-Z35624 is found in Peru.

Q-Z35629

Q-Z35629 is found in the Collas people of Argentina.

Q-Z35706

Little is known about the Q-Z35706 branch.

Q-Z35715

Little is known about the Q-Z35715 branch.

Q-Z35727

Q-Z35727 is found in Peruvians.

Q-Z35732

Q-Z35732 is found in Peruvians.

Q-Z35737

Q-Z35737 is found in Peruvians.

Q-Z35742

Q-Z35742 is found in Peruvians.

Q-Z35747

Little is known about the Q-Z35747 branch.

Q-Z35752

Q-Z35752 is found in the Peruvian population.

Q-Z35757

Little is known about the Q-Z35757 branch.

Q-Z35762

Little is known about the Q-Z35762 branch.

Q-Z35767

Little is known about the Q-Z35767 branch.

Q-Z35840

Q-Z35840 has been found in the Argentinian Cachis and in Peru.

Q-Z35842

Q-Z35842 is present in Peruvian in Lima, Peru.

Q-Z35847

Little is known about the Q-Z35847 branch.

Q-Z35891

Little is known about the Q-Z35891 branch.

Q-Z35896

Little is known about the Q-Z35896 branch.

Q-Z35901

Q-Z35901 is found in the Peruvian population.

Q-Z35906

Little is known about the Q-Z35906 branch.

Q-Z35911

Little is known about the Q-Z35911 branch.

Q-Z35921

Q-Z35921 is found in Peruvians from Lima, Peru and the Calchaquíes people of the Andes.

Q-Z35923

Q-Z35923 is found in Peruvians from Lima, Peru.

Q-Z35928

Q-Z35928 is found in Peruvians.

Q-Z5906

Q-Z5906 has many branches with members from Peruvians, the Calchaquíes people, and the Colla people.

Q-Z5907

Q-Z5907 is found in Peruvians from Lima, Peru.

Q-Z5908

Q-Z5908 is found in Peruvians from Lima, Peru.

Q-Z5910

Q-Z5910 has many branches with members from Peruvians, the Calchaquíes people, and the Colla people.

Q-Z5911

Q-Z5911 members include Peruvian men and the Calchaquíes people.

Q-Z5912

Q-Z5912 is found in Peruvians from Lima, Peru.

Q-Z5915

Q-Z5915 is present in Peruvians, the Colla people of the Andes, and the Wichis of Argentina.

Q-Z5916

Q-Z5916 is found in both the Peruvian population in Lima, Peru and the Colla people of the Andes.

Q-Z6659

Q-Z6659 is found in the Peruvian population of Lima, Peru.

Q-Z768

Q-Z768 is present in men with Mexican Ancestry from Los Angeles, California.

Q-Z770

Q-Z770 is a major branch of Q-M3. Members of the lineage are present in the Pima peoples of New Mexico and across Mexico.

Q-M3 Draft Tree as of 6 November 2016.

Thank you for being part of the project.

Best Regards,
R.A. Canada and the Q-M242 Team

References