Haplogroup X2d1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 2,000 and 8,600 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|14||X2d1||T204C G207A A5186G T11878C||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||X2d1||T204C G207A A5186G T11878C||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||X2d1||T204C G207A A5186G T11878C||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||X2d1||T204C G207A A5186G T11878C||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5002097||Behar et al., 2012b||none||X2d1:315.1C, 523-524d, 709, 8400, 16183C|
|Hap5003266||Behar et al., 2012b||none||X2d1:315.1C, 709, 11084, 16256|
|Hap5007719||Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016||none||X2d1:309.1C, 315.1C, 709, 10389, 10586, 13299, 16183C, 16223|
|Hap5008712||Fernandes et al., 2012||X2d1:207||X2d1:315.1C, 709, 4527, 4529, 16093, 16183C|
|Hap5014037||Schönberg et al., 2011||none||X2d1:310, 523-524d, 709, 8400, 14047N, 16183C|
|Hap5023679||Levin et al., 1999||none||X2d1:309.1C, 315.1C, 709, 12612, 16183C, 16193.1C|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10101151||United States||United States||Italy||Italy|
|Hap10101152||Japan||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10101153||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10101154||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10101155||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10101156||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Fernandes, Veronica; Alshamali, Farida; Alves, Marco; Costa, Marta D.; Pereira, Joana B.; Silva, Nuno M.; Cherni, Lotfi; Harich, Nourdin; Cerny, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B. & Pereira, Luisa (2012). The Arabian Cradle: Mitochondrial Relicts of the First Steps along the Southern Route out of Africa. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(2), 347-355.
- Family Tree DNA & Greenspan (2006). Sequences Directly Submited by Family Tree DNA on Customers' Behalf. , -, -.
- Levin, B.C., Cheng, H. and Reeder, D.J. (1999). A Human Mitochondrial DNA Standard Reference Material for Quality Control in Forensic Identification, Medical Diagnosis, and Mutation Detection. Genomics, 55(2), 135-146.
- Schonberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark & Nasidze, Ivan (2011). High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences. European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(9), 988-994.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup X
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup X
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am
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