Haplogroup X2a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 5,300 and 10,500 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|03||X2a1||143 3552 (16093)||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||X2a1||143 3552 (16093)||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||X2a1||143 3552 16093||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||X2a1||143 3552 16093||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||X2a1||143 3552 16093||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||X2a1||143 3552 16093||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||X2a1||143 225! 3552 16093||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||X2a1||143 225! 3552 16093||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||X2a1||143 225! 3552 16093||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||X2a1||143 225! 3552 16093||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||X2a1||143 225! 3552 16093||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||X2a1||G143A A225G! T3552C T16093C||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||X2a1||G143A A225G! T3552C T16093C||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||X2a1||G143A A225G! T3552C T16093C||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||X2a1||G143A A225G! T3552C T16093C||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5007132||Fagundes et al., 2008||X2a1:16213||X2a1:523-524d, 16193.1C, 16255|
|Hap5015956||Achilli et al., 2008||none||X2a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 16183C|
|Hap5016233||Perego et al., 2009||none||X2a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 2117Y, 16183C|
|Hap5016234||Perego et al., 2009||X2a1:143||X2a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 523-524d, 8152, 16183C|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Coble, Michael D.; Kong, Qing-Peng; Woodward, Scott R.; Salas, Antonio; Torroni, Antonio & Bandelt, Hans-Jurgen" (2008). The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies. PLoS ONE, 3(3), e1764+.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fagundes, Nelson J.; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Smith, David Glenn G.; Silva, Wilson A.; Zago, Marco A.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Santos, Sidney E.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza L. & Bonatt (2008). Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(3), 583-592.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Perego, U.A., Achilli, A., Angerhofer, N., Accetturo, M., Pala, M., Olivieri, A., Kashani, B.H., Ritchie, K.H., Scozzari, R., Kong, Q.P. and Myres, N.M. (2009). Distinctive Paleo-Indian Migration Routes from Beringia Marked by Two Rare mtDNA Haplogroups. Current Biology, 19(1), 1-8.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup X
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup X
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am
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