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Age: 19,724.9 ± 5,211.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T5302C A14587G T15654C (C16104T) T16278C!!
Parent Branch: X
Descendant branch(s): X1a X1c


Haplogroup X1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 14,500 and 24,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01X1a14587 16104 16278Released 27 Aug 2008
02X1a14587 16104 16278Released 14 Oct 2008
03X1a14587 15654 16104Released 1 Mar 2009
04X1a14587 15654 16104Released 10 May 2009
05X1a14587 15654 16104Released 8 Jul 2009
06X1a14587 15654 16104Released 28 Sep 2009
07X1a14587 15654 16104Released 10 Nov 2009
08X1a14587 15654 16104Released 21 Mar 2010
09X1a14587 15654 16104Released 20 Jun 2010
10X1a5302 14587 15654 (16104) 16278!Released 10 Aug 2010
11X15302 14587 15654 (16104) 16278!Released 7 Feb 2011
12X15302 14587 15654 (16104) 16278!Released 20 Jul 2011
13X15302 14587 15654 (16104) 16278!Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14X1T5302C A14587G T15654C (C16104T) T16278C!!Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15X1T5302C A14587G T15654C (C16104T) T16278C!!Released 30 Sep 2012
16X1T5302C A14587G T15654C (C16104T) T16278C!!Released 19 Feb 2014
17X1T5302C A14587G T15654C (C16104T) T16278C!!Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10099895United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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