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Age: 9,452.0 ± 4,985.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T8705C C10676T
Parent Branch: U4c
Descendant branch(s): U4c2a


Haplogroup U4c2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 4,500 and 14,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

11U4c28705 10676Released 7 Feb 2011
12U4c28705 10676Released 20 Jul 2011
13U4c28705 10676Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14U4c2T8705C C10676TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15U4c2T8705C C10676TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16U4c2T8705C C10676TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17U4c2T8705C C10676TReleased 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5007864Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016U4c2:146U4c2:228, 315.1C, 11002, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10086418United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10086419United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10086420United StatesUnited StatesUnited StatesUnited States
Hap10086421United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States
Hap10086422United StatesUnited StatesUnspecifiedUnited States

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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