Age: 11,520.8 ± 2,790.0; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T11339C
Parent Branch: U4b
Descendant branch(s): U4b1a U4b1b


Haplogroup U4b1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 8,700 and 14,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 U4b1 11339 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 U4b1 11339 Released 14 Oct 2008
05 U4b1 11339 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 U4b1 11339 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 U4b1 11339 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 U4b1 11339 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 U4b1 11339 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 U4b1 11339 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 U4b1 11339 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 U4b1 11339 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 U4b1 11339 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 U4b1 T11339C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 U4b1 T11339C Released 30 Sep 2012
16 U4b1 T11339C Released 19 Feb 2014
17 U4b1 T11339C Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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