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Age: 1,865.4 ± 2,709.3; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: C16223T!
Parent Branch: U4a2
Descendant branch(s):


Haplogroup U4a2b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who started this branch lived at some point between recent generations and 4,600 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01U4a2b16223Released 27 Aug 2008
02U4a2b16223Released 14 Oct 2008
05U4a2b16223Released 8 Jul 2009
06U4a2b16223Released 28 Sep 2009
07U4a2b16223Released 10 Nov 2009
08U4a2b16223Released 21 Mar 2010
09U4a2b16223Released 20 Jun 2010
10U4a2b16223Released 10 Aug 2010
11U4a2b16223Released 7 Feb 2011
12U4a2b16223Released 20 Jul 2011
13U4a2b16223Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14U4a2bC16223T!Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15U4a2bC16223T!Released 30 Sep 2012
16U4a2bC16223T!Released 19 Feb 2014
17U4a2bC16223T!Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5002743Behar et al., 2012bnoneU4a2b:524.1AC, 7080
Hap5004479Behar et al., 2012bnoneU4a2b:189, 524.1AC, 16497
Hap5008412Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneU4a2b:524.1ACAC, 3335Y, 9612R, 16216T, 16270
Hap5008917Finnilä et al., 2001noneU4a2b:315.1C, 15497
Hap5013230Raule et al., 2014U4a2b:4646U4a2b:524.1ACAC, 4529T
Hap5015895Malyarchuk et al., 2008anoneU4a2b:524.1AC, 9948, 16172
Hap5015896Malyarchuk et al., 2008anoneU4a2b:524.1AC, 2887
Hap5016829Malyarchuk et al., 2010anoneU4a2b:524.1ACAC
Hap5023558Zheng et al., 2012nonenone

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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