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Age: 3,387.7 ± 2,547.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: C296T
Parent Branch: U4a1b
Descendant branch(s): U4a1b1a


Haplogroup U4a1b1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 800 and 5,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

08U4a1b1296Released 21 Mar 2010
09U4a1b1296Released 20 Jun 2010
10U4a1b1296Released 10 Aug 2010
11U4a1b1296Released 7 Feb 2011
12U4a1b1296Released 20 Jul 2011
13U4a1b1296Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14U4a1b1C296TReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15U4a1b1C296TReleased 30 Sep 2012
16U4a1b1C296TReleased 19 Feb 2014
17U4a1b1C296TReleased 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5004767Behar et al., 2012bnoneU4a1b1:315.1C, 498d, 524.1AC
Hap5005087Behar et al., 2012bnoneU4a1b1:64Y, 315.1C, 16289
Hap5007286Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016U4a1b1:16129U4a1b1:315.1C, 524.1AC, 7119, 8705, 14668
Hap5007552Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016U4a1b1:16129U4a1b1:315.1C, 524.1AC, 8705, 11380, 16086
Hap5007588Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016noneU4a1b1:315.1C, 12352
Hap5016033Malyarchuk et al., 2008aU4a1b1:16356U4a1b1:315.1C, 524.1ACAC, 7853, 14368
Hap5016074Malyarchuk et al., 2008anoneU4a1b1:315.1C, 524.1ACAC

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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