Haplogroup U4a1a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 1,500 and 7,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b).
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|14||U4a1a1||965.XC||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||U4a1a1||965.XC||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||U4a1a1||965.XC||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||U4a1a1||965.XC||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5000070||Achilli et al., 2005||none||U4a1a1:315.1C, 1555, 4562|
|Hap5009115||Gasparre et al., 2007||none||U4a1a1:153, 315.1C, 524.1ACAC, 7084, 16144|
|Hap5011071||Kloss-Brandstätter et al., 2010||none||U4a1a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 524.1AC, 9097|
|Hap5016031||Malyarchuk et al., 2008a||none||U4a1a1:204, 315.1C, 16207|
|Hap5016032||Malyarchuk et al., 2008a||none||U4a1a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 524.1ACAC, 7271, 14884|
|Hap5016046||Malyarchuk et al., 2008a||none||U4a1a1:315.1C, 524.1AC, 4181.1A, 5899.1C, 8167, 12618, 14220.1A, 14715.1A|
|Hap5016048||Malyarchuk et al., 2008a||U4a1a1:16189||U4a1a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 524.1AC|
|Hap5016066||Malyarchuk et al., 2008a||none||U4a1a1:315.1C, 524.1AC, 5899.1C, 8167, 10790, 12618|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Achilli, A.; Rengo, C.; Battaglia, V.; Pala, M.; Olivieri, A.; Fornarino, S.; Magri, C.; Scozzari, R.; Babudri, N. & Santachiarabenerecetti, A. (2005). Saami and Berbers — An Unexpected Mitochondrial DNA Link. American Journal of Human Genetics, 76(5), 883-886.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Gasparre, G., Porcelli, A.M., Bonora, E., Pennisi, L.F., Toller, M., Iommarini, L., Ghelli, A., Moretti, M., Betts, C.M., Martinelli, G.N. and Ceroni, A.R. (2007). Disruptive mitochondrial DNA mutations in complex I subunits are markers of oncocytic phenotype in thyroid tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(21), 9001-9006.
- Kloss-Brandstätter, A., Schäfer, G., Erhart, G., Hüttenhofer, A., Coassin, S., Seifarth, C., Summerer, M., Bektic, J., Klocker, H. and Kronenberg, F. (2010). Somatic Mutations throughout the Entire Mitochondrial Genome Are Associated with Elevated PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 87(6), 802-812.
- Malyarchuk, B., Grzybowski, T., Derenko, M., Perkova, M., Vanecek, T., Lazur, J., Gomolcak, P. and Tsybovsky, I. (2008). Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25(8), 1651-1658.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup U4
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup U
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am
Peoples: | Places: