Age: 22,929.6 ± 6,365.7; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G3915A A4093G (C16168T)
Parent Branch: U2b
Descendant branch(s): U2b1a


Haplogroup U2b1 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
05 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 U2b1 3915 4093 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 U2b1 G3915A A4093G Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 U2b1 G3915A A4093G Released 30 Sep 2012
16 U2b1 G3915A A4093G (C16168T) Released 19 Feb 2014
17 U2b1 G3915A A4093G (C16168T) Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5007271 Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016 U2b1:11914, 13105, 16168 U2b1:315.1C, 1598, 8289, 11743, 14112A, 16256, 16318, 16519
Hap5009279 Govindaraj et al., 2011 U2b1:7521, 16168 U2b1:146, 309.1C, 315.1C, 789, 3106N, 5027, 6216, 13866, 14668, 16172, 16519
Hap5009282 Govindaraj et al., 2011 U2b1:16168 U2b1:309.1C, 315.1C, 960.1XC, 3106N, 15857, 16519
Hap5019581 Khan et al., 2014 U2b1:152, 3915, 5186T U2b1:309.1C, 315.1C, 1277C, 3914, 4481, 4500, 5186, 8743, 9380, 11778, 16249, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10082355 Afghanistan Afghanistan Afghanistan Afghanistan
Hap10082356 Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh
Hap10082357 Pakistan Pakistan India India
Hap10082358 Singapore Singapore Singapore Singapore
Hap10082359 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082360 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082361 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082362 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082363 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082364 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082365 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082366 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: July 2, 2016 at 0:41 am


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2016-07-02T00:41:50+00:00 June 6th, 2016|