Age: 22,693.8 ± 8,274.7; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: A16206c
Parent Branch: U2
Descendant branch(s): U2a1 U2a2


Haplogroup U2a is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 U2a 16206C Released 27 Aug 2008
02 U2a 16206C Released 14 Oct 2008
03 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 1 Mar 2009
05 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 8 Jul 2009
06 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 28 Sep 2009
07 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 10 Nov 2009
08 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 21 Mar 2010
09 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 20 Jun 2010
10 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 10 Aug 2010
11 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 7 Feb 2011
12 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 20 Jul 2011
13 U2a 16206C (16230) (16311) Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 U2a A16206c A16230G! T16311C! Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 U2a (T195C!) A16206c A16230G! T16311C! Released 30 Sep 2012
16 U2a A16206c Released 19 Feb 2014
17 U2a A16206c Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10082318 Libya Bangladesh India India
Hap10082319 United Kingdom India India India
Hap10082320 Saint Lucia Saint Lucia Unspecified Saint Lucia
Hap10082321 India Unspecified Unspecified India
Hap10082322 Saudi Arabia Unspecified Unspecified Saudi Arabia
Hap10082323 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082324 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082325 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082326 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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