Age: 42,805.7 ± 4,493.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: A16051G
Parent Branch: U
Descendant branch(s): U2a U2b U2c U2c'd U2d U2e


Haplogroup U2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 38,300 and 47,300 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 U2 16051 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 U2 16051 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 U2 16051 Released 1 Mar 2009
05 U2 16051 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 U2 16051 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 U2 16051 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 U2 16051 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 U2 16051 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 U2 16051 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 U2 16051 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 U2 16051 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 U2 16051 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 U2 A16051G Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 U2 A16051G Released 30 Sep 2012
16 U2 A16051G Released 19 Feb 2014
17 U2 A16051G Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5016669 Krause et al., 2010 none U2:542, 711, 13269, 15262, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10082312 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082313 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082314 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10082315 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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