Haplogroup R1a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 4,700 and 9,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b). Like its parent, R1a, the lineage originated in the Caucasus region.
Published sequences include one from Russia (Fedorova et al., 2013) and another from the Azeri people (Schönberg et al., 2011). Two studies are medical and do not have demographic information (Pereira et al., 2007 and Soini et al., 2012). The second study was done in Finland, but it is unclear if the R1a1 person's maternal origin was in Finland. A citizen science donated sample comes from Armenian (Greenspan et al., 2006 – 2016).
Geno 2 data has one person each from Greece and Turkey.
From the Caucasus, this line seems to have spread both north to European Russia and southwest through Turkey and into Greece. It is unclear if this happened during the Bronze age in more recent historic times.
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||R1a||4026 5378 7424||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||R1a||4026 7424||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||R1a||4026 7424||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||R1a||4026 7424||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||R1a||A4026G A7424G||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||R1a||A4026G A7424G||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||R1a1||A4026G A7424G||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||R1a1||A4026G A7424G||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5007891||Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016||none||R1a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 11176|
|Hap5008676||Fedorova et al., 2013||none||R1a1:309.1C, 315.1C|
|Hap5013927||Schönberg et al., 2011||R1a1:152||R1a1:309N, 310, 3008N, 8601N, 14047N, 15766N|
|Hap5014363||Soini et al., 2012||R1a1:6671, 8887||R1a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 4216, 9425|
|Hap5015838||Pereira et al., 2007||R1a1:195||R1a1:150, 189, 309.1C, 315.1C, 8288, 10907, 16288|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10072668||United States||United States||Greece||Greece|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Fedorova, S.A., Reidla, M., Metspalu, E., Metspalu, M., Rootsi, S., Tambets, K., Trofimova, N., Zhadanov, S.I., Kashani, B.H., Olivieri, A. and Voevoda, M.I. (2013). Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13(1), 1.
- Family Tree DNA & Greenspan (2006). Sequences Directly Submited by Family Tree DNA on Customers' Behalf. , -, -.
- Pereira, L., Gonçalves, J., Franco-Duarte, R., Silva, J., Rocha, T., Arnold, C., Richards, M. and Macaulay, V. (2007). No Evidence for an mtDNA Role in Sperm Motility: Data from Complete Sequencing of Asthenozoospermic Males. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24(3), 868-874.
- Schonberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark & Nasidze, Ivan (2011). High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences. European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(9), 988-994.
- Soini, H.K., Moilanen, J.S., Finnila, S. and Majamaa, K. (2012). Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Finnish patients with matrilineal diabetes mellitus. BMC research notes, 5(1), 1.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup R
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup R
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last Updated: Last updated: August 1, 2016 at 14:53 pm
Peoples: Azeri | Places: Armenia, Greece, Russia, and Turkey