Age: 8,293.9 ± 2,605.9; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: The Caucasus
Mutations: A4026G A7424G
Parent Branch: R1a
Descendant branch(s): R1a1a R1a1b R1a1c


Haplogroup R1a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 4,700 and 9,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b). Like its parent, R1a, the lineage originated in the Caucasus region.

Published sequences include one from Russia (Fedorova et al., 2013) and another from the Azeri people (Schönberg et al., 2011). Two studies are medical and do not have demographic information (Pereira et al., ‎2007 and Soini et al., 2012). The second study was done in Finland, but it is unclear if the R1a1 person's maternal origin was in Finland. A citizen science donated sample comes from Armenian (Greenspan et al., 2006 – 2016).

Geno 2 data has one person each from Greece and Turkey.

From the Caucasus, this line seems to have spread both north to European Russia and southwest through Turkey and into Greece. It is unclear if this happened during the Bronze age in more recent historic times.

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 10 May 2009
05 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 R1a 4026 5378 7424 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 R1a 4026 7424 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 R1a 4026 7424 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 R1a 4026 7424 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 R1a A4026G A7424G Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 R1a A4026G A7424G Released 30 Sep 2012
16 R1a1 A4026G A7424G Released 19 Feb 2014
17 R1a1 A4026G A7424G Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5007891 Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016 none R1a1:309.1C, 315.1C, 11176
Hap5008676 Fedorova et al., 2013 none R1a1:309.1C, 315.1C
Hap5013927 Schönberg et al., 2011 R1a1:152 R1a1:309N, 310, 3008N, 8601N, 14047N, 15766N
Hap5014363 Soini et al., 2012 R1a1:6671, 8887 R1a1:309.1CC, 315.1C, 4216, 9425
Hap5015838 Pereira et al., ‎2007 R1a1:195 R1a1:150, 189, 309.1C, 315.1C, 8288, 10907, 16288

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10072668 United States United States Greece Greece
Hap10072669 United States Turkey Turkey Turkey
Hap10072670 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10072671 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: August 1, 2016 at 14:53 pm


Peoples: Azeri | Places: Armenia, Greece, Russia, and Turkey

2016-08-01T14:53:52+00:00 June 6th, 2016|