Haplogroup H15b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 2,200 and 8,800 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).
One of the earliest research studies with someone from this line was Achilli et al., 2004. The paper was focused on the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge. This is a small part of Europe where some humans were able to survive during the last ice age. The individual tested was an Italian. In Shlush et al., 2008, an H15b person was found in the Druze population. The Druze are an isolated population in the Middle East.
There are two citizen science samples donated to GenBank (Greenspan et al., 2006 – 2016) and another donated through Behar et al., 2012b. The first two are Armenian and the third's demographics are unknown.
A sixth sample from Denmark comes from a medical research study (Raule et al., 2014).
Geno 2 data shows diverse maternal origins in Europe and the Middle East. In the Middle East, results come from Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon. In Europe, they come from Greece, Italy, and Denmark. Further, there are Americans in the United States with European origins.
With a distribution that reaches to Denmark, it is tempting to place this line in Europe before the last ice age. However, H15b is much younger than the beginning of the last ice age, and the parent branch, H15, is unlikely to be from Europe. Thus, the Franco-Cantabrian Refuge is unlikely to have been the source for H15b's ancestors. The age of H15b and its spread from the Middle East to Europe may link it to the spread of farming in the late Neolithic. It could also have come to Europe with later migrations in the Bronze Age.
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|04||H15b||3847||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||H15b||3847||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||H15b||3847||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||H15b||3847||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||H15b||3847||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||H15b||3847||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||H15b||3847||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||H15b||3847||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||H15b||3847||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||H15b||3847||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||H15b||T3847C||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||H15b||T3847C||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||H15b||T3847C||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||H15b||T3847C||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5000021||Achilli et al., 2004||none||H15b:315.1C, 1117, 10993, 16519|
|Hap5004228||Behar et al., 2012b||none||H15b:309.1CC, 315.1C, 16519, 16527|
|Hap5008098||Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016||H15b:57||H15b:56.1A, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 8699, 13818, 15115, 16519|
|Hap5008270||Greenspan et al., 2006 - 2016||none||H15b:56T, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 8699, 13371, 13818, 16519|
|Hap5013330||Raule et al., 2014||none||H15b:185, 309.1CC, 315.1C, 16519|
|Hap5014289||Shlush et al., 2008||H15b:57||H15b:54C, 56.1A, 200, 309.1C, 315.1C, 9336, 9612, 9644, 10819, 13145, 16086, 16519|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10003724||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10015221||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10021689||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10027002||United States||United States||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10028933||United States||Unspecified||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10028988||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10029642||United States||United States||United States||United States|
|Hap10032590||United States||Unspecified||Unspecified||United States|
|Hap10037721||United States||United States||United States||United States|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Achilli, A., Rengo, C., Magri, C., Battaglia, V., Olivieri, A., Scozzari, R., Moral, P. (2004). The Molecular Dissection of mtDNA Haplogroup H Confirms That the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge Was a Major Source for the European Gene Pool. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75(5), 910-918.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Family Tree DNA & Greenspan (2006). Sequences Directly Submited by Family Tree DNA on Customers' Behalf. , -, -.
- Raule, N., Sevini, F., Li, S., Barbieri, A., Tallaro, F., Lomartire, L., Vianello, D., Montesanto, A., Moilanen, J.S., Bezrukov, V. and Blanché, H. (2014). The co-occurrence of mtDNA mutations on different oxidative phosphorylation subunits, not detected by haplogroup analysis, affects human longevity and is population specific. Aging cell, 13(3), 401-407.
- Shlush, Liran I.; Behar, Doron M.; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Templeton, Alan; Hadid, Yarin; Basis, Fuad; Hammer, Michael; Itzkovitz, Shalev & Skorecki, Karl (2008). The Druze: a population genetic refugium of the Near East. PLoS ONE, 3(5), e2105+.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup H & HV
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup H
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last updated: July 27, 2016 at 17:07 pm
Peoples: | Places: Armenia, Denmark, Greece, Iran, Italy, Lebanon, and Turkey