Age: 20,589.1 ± 5,276.5; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G15930A
Parent Branch: B4d
Descendant branch(s):


Haplogroup B4d1'2'3 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 15,300 and 25,900 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
05 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 B4d1'2'3 15930 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 B4d1'2'3 G15930A Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 B4d1'2'3 G15930A Released 30 Sep 2012
16 B4d1'2'3 G15930A Released 19 Feb 2014
17 B4d1'2'3 G15930A Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10044581 China China China China
Hap10044582 Singapore Malaysia Unspecified Malaysia
Hap10044583 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10044584 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10044585 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10044586 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified
Hap10044587 Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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