Age: Undetermined
Origin: Tibet
Mutations: G14364A
Parent Branch: A
Descendant branch(s):


Haplogroup A21 is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity with a likely origin in Tibet or the surrounding region. Its age has not been determined.

Academic information comes from three studies of peoples in or near Tibet. The first study found a member of the lineage in Chamdo, Tibet (Qin et al., 2010). Another comes from GenBank samples from an unpublished study of the Ladakh tribe (Sharma V et al., 2012). Finally, the branch was found in the Sherpa people (Kang et al., 2013).

Interestingly, the Geno 2 data set includes someone whose maternal origins are from Trinidad and Tobago. The a likely explanation is that their ancestor was one of the thousands of Indians taken into indentured service by the British. They became known as Indo-Trinidadians.

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
16 A21 G14364A Released 19 Feb 2014
17 A21 G14364A Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5010711 Kang et al., 2013 none A21:16092, 16519
Hap5010712 Kang et al., 2013 none A21:16092, 16519
Hap5012391 Qin et al. 2010 none A21:151, 315.1C, 632, 8506, 13020, 13145, 14962, 16519
Hap5017294 Sharma V et al., 2012 none A21:143, 309.1C, 315.1C, 13934, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10041534 United States Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: August 13, 2016 at 19:43 pm


Peoples: Ladakh, Sherpa, and Tibetans | Places: Tibet

2016-08-13T19:43:10+00:00 June 6th, 2016|