Haplogroup A11b is an Asian branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 4,700 and 15,900 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).
Information on this line comes from three studies. The first study includes someone from the Naxi population (Hartmann et al., 2008). The second has one sample each from the Chamdo and Yunnan regions (Ji F et al., 2012). The last paper is medical, and demographic information simply states Chinese (Wang CY et al., 2011).
Geno 2 data does not have a member of this line.
The presence of this line in the Chamdo region is consistent with the line originating in the Tibetan Plateau like its parent. Further, the presence in the Naxi (Nakhi) population may be due to their trade with the Lhasa people along the Tea and Horse Caravan routes. The sample from Yunnan may then represent the spread of the lineage into southern China from Tibet.
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|11||A11b||3290 16527||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||A11b||3290 16527||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||A11b||3290 16527||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||A11b||T3290C C16527T||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||A11b||T3290C C16527T||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||A11b||T3290C C16527T||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||A11b||T3290C C16527T||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5009308||Hartmann et al., 2008||none||A11b:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3204|
|Hap5016424||Ji F et al., 2012||A11b:11914, 16311||A11b:194, 207, 523-524d, 709, 4463, 5460|
|Hap5016428||Ji F et al., 2012||none||A11b:523-524d, 3204|
|Hap5016982||Wang CY et al., 2011||none||A11b:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3204, 6164, 6962, 16390N|
|Hap5016983||Wang CY et al., 2011||none||A11b:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3204, 6164, 6962|
|Hap5016984||Wang CY et al., 2011||none||A11b:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 3204, 6164, 6962|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Hartmann, A., Thieme, M., Nanduri, L.K., Stempfl, T., Moehle, C., Kivisild, T. and Oefner, P.J. (2008). Validation of microarray-based resequencing of 93 worldwide mitochondrial genomes. Human mutation, 30(1), 115-122.
- Ji, F., Sharpley, M.S., Derbeneva, O., Alves, L.S., Qian, P., Wang, Y., Chalkia, D., Lvova, M., Xu, J., Yao, W. and Simon, M. (2012). Mitochondrial DNA variant associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and high-altitude Tibetans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(19), 7391-7396.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Wang, C.Y., Li, H., Hao, X.D., Liu, J., Wang, J.X., Wang, W.Z., Kong, Q.P. and Zhang, Y.P. (2011). Uncovering the Profile of Somatic mtDNA Mutations in Chinese Colorectal Cancer Patients. PLoS ONE, 6(6), e21613.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup A2
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup A
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last updated: August 11, 2016 at 19:47 pm
Peoples: Nakhi | Places: China and Tibet