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Age: 15,833.8 ± 5,012.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: C2766T T16223C
Parent Branch: D4c
Descendant branch(s): D4c1a D4c1b


Haplogroup D4c1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 10,800 and 20,800 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01D4c12766Released 27 Aug 2008
02D4c12766Released 14 Oct 2008
03D4c12766Released 1 Mar 2009
04D4c12766Released 10 May 2009
05D4c12766 16223Released 8 Jul 2009
06D4c12766 16223!Released 28 Sep 2009
07D4c12766 16223!Released 10 Nov 2009
08D4c12766 16223!Released 21 Mar 2010
09D4c12766 16223!Released 20 Jun 2010
10D4c12766 16223!Released 10 Aug 2010
11D4c12766 16223!Released 7 Feb 2011
12D4c12766 16223!Released 20 Jul 2011
13D4c12766 16223!Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14D4c1C2766T T16223CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15D4c1C2766T T16223CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16D4c1C2766T T16223CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17D4c1C2766T T16223CReleased 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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