Haplogroup D4b2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 13,900 and 19,300 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||D4b2||1382C 8964 9824A||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||D4b2||A1382c C8964T T9824a||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||D4b2||A1382c C8964T T9824a||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||D4b2||A1382c C8964T T9824a||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||D4b2||A1382c C8964T T9824a||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5015330||Ueno et al., 2009||none||D4b2:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 10692, 12795, 13392, 16519|
|Hap5016770||Yu et al., 2010a||none||D4b2:315.1C, 319, 523-524d, 3460, 4655, 5600, 10858, 12172, 16172, 16519|
|Hap5022492||Young et al., 2006||D4b2:489, 4883, 5178A, 14668, 16129||D4b2:309.1C, 1555, 3866, 4140, 10454, 12549, 13135, 13152, 13928C, 14766, 15040, 16093, 16519|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10046463||Germany||United States||United States||United States|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Ueno, H., Nishigaki, Y., Kong, Q.P., Fuku, N., Kojima, S., Iwata, N., Ozaki, N. and Tanaka, M. (2009). Analysis of mitochondrial DNA variants in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Mitochondrion, 9(6), 385-393.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Young, W.Y., Zhao, L., Qian, Y., Li, R., Chen, J., Yuan, H., Dai, P., Zhai, S., Han, D. and Guan, M.X. (2006). Variants in mitochondrial tRNAGlu, tRNAArg, and tRNAThr may influence the phenotypic manifestation of deafness-associated 12S rRNA A1555G mutation in three Han Chinese families with hearing loss. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 140(20), 2188-2197.
- Yu, D., Jia, X., Zhang, A.M., Guo, X., Zhang, Y.P., Zhang, Q. and Yao, Y.G. (2010). Molecular characterization of six Chinese families with m.3460G>A and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. Neurogenetics, 11(3), 349-356.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup D
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup D
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am
Peoples: | Places: