Age: 8,245.8 ± 4,239.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T12957C
Parent Branch: D4a
Descendant branch(s): D4a2a D4a2b


Haplogroup D4a2 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who founded this line lived between 4,000 and 12,500 years ago (Behar et al 2012b).

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 D4a2 12957 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 D4a2 12957 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 D4a2 12957 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 D4a2 12957 Released 10 May 2009
05 D4a2 12957 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 D4a2 12957 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 D4a2 12957 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 D4a2 12957 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 D4a2 12957 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 D4a2 12957 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 D4a2 12957 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 D4a2 12957 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 D4a2 12957 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 D4a2 T12957C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 D4a2 T12957C Released 30 Sep 2012
16 D4a2 T12957C Released 19 Feb 2014
17 D4a2 T12957C Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5011990 Mikami et al., 2013 none D4a2:309.1C, 315.1C, 6998
Hap5015088 Tanaka et al., 2004 none D4a2:309.1CC, 315.1C, 15052, 15622

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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