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Age: 11,526.8 ± 6,355.2; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T15097C
Parent Branch: M3c1
Descendant branch(s):


Haplogroup M3c1a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 5,200 and 17,900 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

10M3c1a15097Released 10 Aug 2010
11M3c1a15097Released 7 Feb 2011
12M3c1a15097Released 20 Jul 2011
13M3c1a15097Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14M3c1aT15097CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15M3c1aT15097CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16M3c1aT15097CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17M3c1aT15097CReleased 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5008964Fornarino et al., 2009M3c1a:482M3c1a:151, 315.1C, 523-524d, 9929, 16183C, 16223, 16260
Hap5008987Fornarino et al., 2009noneM3c1a:309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 5097, 6011, 8269, 14319, 16051, 16183C
Hap5008994Fornarino et al., 2009M3c1a:8468, 8655M3c1a:315.1C, 523-524d, 3618, 8354-9020d, 9300, 9603-9623d, 16172, 16183C, 16256
Hap5019577Khan et al., 2014noneM3c1a:315.1C, 2438T, 7424, 11778, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10070590United StatesIndiaIndiaIndia
Hap10070593United StatesPakistanUnspecifiedPakistan

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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