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M28a

Summary

Age: 14,193.6 ± 5,193.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A!
Parent Branch: M28
Descendant branch(s): M28a1 M28a2 M28a3 M28a4 M28a5 M28a6 M28a7

Background

Haplogroup M28a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 9,000 and 19,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build#CalledMutationsNotes
01M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 27 Aug 2008
02M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 14 Oct 2008
03M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 1 Mar 2009
04M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 10 May 2009
05M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 8 Jul 2009
06M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 28 Sep 2009
07M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 10 Nov 2009
08M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 21 Mar 2010
09M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 20 Jun 2010
10M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 10 Aug 2010
11M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 7 Feb 2011
12M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 20 Jul 2011
13M28a1598 10658 16086 16129Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14M28aG1598A A10658G T16086CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15M28aG1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A!Released 30 Sep 2012
16M28aG1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A!Released 19 Feb 2014
17M28aG1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A!Released 18 Feb 2016


GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5011765Merriwether et al., 2005noneM28a:315.1C, 2951, 10752, 16320
Hap5011766Merriwether et al., 2005noneM28a:234, 315.1C, 524.1AC, 1185, 3278, 3651, 14577, 16429
Hap5012276Pierson et al., 2006noneM28a:315.1C, 524.1ACAC, 6962, 7394, 16366, 16519
Hap5012280Pierson et al., 2006M28a:16311, 16468M28a:315.1C, 6858, 6962, 10192, 15530
Hap5015665Friedlaender et al., 2007M28a:16468M28a:198, 204, 207, 309.1C, 315.1C, 431A, 524.1AC, 2757, 9590, 11084, 13803, 15519, 16051, 16265C, 16317
Hap5015666Friedlaender et al., 2007noneM28a:198, 204, 207, 315.1C, 431A, 9590, 11084, 13803, 16051
Hap5021286Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:16086M28a:151, 199, 204, 15363
Hap5021290Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:16086M28a:151, 199, 204, 372, 3394, 15363
Hap5021303Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:6281M28a:152, 198, 204, 207, 431A, 524.1AC, 1503, 4135, 9590, 11084, 13803, 16051
Hap5021376Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:198, 204, 207, 431A, 524.1AC, 1503, 4135, 9590, 11084, 13803, 16051
Hap5021518Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:16086M28a:151, 199, 204, 1899N, 15363, 15787
Hap5021574Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:539, 1185, 7999, 10084, 10535, 16429
Hap5021599Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:195, 204, 207, 310, 431A, 10861, 10966, 11084, 14384, 15440, 15769, 16051, 16175, 16287
Hap5021601Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:195, 204, 207, 431A, 10861, 10966, 11084, 14384, 15440, 15769, 16051, 16175, 16287
Hap5021604Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021618Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 9554, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021664Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:524.1AC, 789, 1193, 4310, 6275, 8994, 11284, 11864, 14013, 15481A
Hap5021667Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 9055, 9554, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021702Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:195, 204, 207, 431A, 10861, 10966, 11084, 14384, 15440, 15769, 16051, 16175, 16287
Hap5021723Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:15067M28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 13386, 15067N
Hap5021757Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:789, 1193, 4310, 6275, 8994, 11284, 11864, 14013, 15481A
Hap5021790Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:16086M28a:8756, 13246, 14122, 16265, 16320
Hap5021791Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:8756, 13246, 14122, 16320
Hap5021795Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:16086M28a:8756, 13246, 14122
Hap5021806Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:16189M28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021859Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:198, 204, 207, 310, 431A, 524.1AC, 4135, 8776, 8825, 9590, 11084, 13803, 14248, 14861, 16051
Hap5021903Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:8756, 13246, 14122, 16320
Hap5021921Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:204, 5063, 6278, 7145, 10691, 16261
Hap5021929Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:204, 5063, 7145, 9909, 10691, 16261
Hap5021930Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:204, 5063, 6278, 7145, 10691, 16261
Hap5021932Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:203, 204, 5063, 7145, 7873, 10691, 16261
Hap5021933Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:204, 5063, 7145, 7873, 10691, 16261
Hap5021934Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:204, 5063, 7145, 7873, 10691, 16261
Hap5021943Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:204, 524.1AC, 5063, 6278, 7145, 10691, 16261
Hap5021952Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:16362M28a:152, 153, 524.1AC, 1185, 15217, 16429
Hap5021955Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:234, 524.1AC, 1185, 3651, 16429
Hap5021970Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16506
Hap5021974Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16506
Hap5021982Duggan et al., 2014bM28a:13105M28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16471
Hap5021983Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16471, 16506
Hap5021985Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:3565, 7775N, 8093, 16092N, 16320, 16471, 16506
Hap5022019Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:217N, 573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022020Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16471, 16506
Hap5022021Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022023Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:524.1AC, 573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022025Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022029Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022036Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 8038, 9663, 16356, 16429
Hap5022037Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:524.1AC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022042Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16169N, 16429
Hap5022043Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022054Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 6266, 9663, 16429
Hap5022056Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022060Duggan et al., 2014bnoneM28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 8038, 9663, 16356, 16429

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Country
Mother's
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Maternal
Origin

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

Keywords

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