M28a

Summary

Age: 14,193.6 ± 5,193.6; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A!
Parent Branch: M28
Descendant branch(s): M28a1 M28a2 M28a3 M28a4 M28a5 M28a6 M28a7

Background

Haplogroup M28a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 9,000 and 19,400 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
01 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 27 Aug 2008
02 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 14 Oct 2008
03 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 1 Mar 2009
04 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 10 May 2009
05 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 8 Jul 2009
06 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 28 Sep 2009
07 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 M28a 1598 10658 16086 16129 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 M28a G1598A A10658G T16086C Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 M28a G1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A! Released 30 Sep 2012
16 M28a G1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A! Released 19 Feb 2014
17 M28a G1598A A10658G T16086C G16129A! Released 18 Feb 2016


GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5011765 Merriwether et al., 2005 none M28a:315.1C, 2951, 10752, 16320
Hap5011766 Merriwether et al., 2005 none M28a:234, 315.1C, 524.1AC, 1185, 3278, 3651, 14577, 16429
Hap5012276 Pierson et al., 2006 none M28a:315.1C, 524.1ACAC, 6962, 7394, 16366, 16519
Hap5012280 Pierson et al., 2006 M28a:16311, 16468 M28a:315.1C, 6858, 6962, 10192, 15530
Hap5015665 Friedlaender et al., 2007 M28a:16468 M28a:198, 204, 207, 309.1C, 315.1C, 431A, 524.1AC, 2757, 9590, 11084, 13803, 15519, 16051, 16265C, 16317
Hap5015666 Friedlaender et al., 2007 none M28a:198, 204, 207, 315.1C, 431A, 9590, 11084, 13803, 16051
Hap5021286 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:16086 M28a:151, 199, 204, 15363
Hap5021290 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:16086 M28a:151, 199, 204, 372, 3394, 15363
Hap5021303 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:6281 M28a:152, 198, 204, 207, 431A, 524.1AC, 1503, 4135, 9590, 11084, 13803, 16051
Hap5021376 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:198, 204, 207, 431A, 524.1AC, 1503, 4135, 9590, 11084, 13803, 16051
Hap5021518 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:16086 M28a:151, 199, 204, 1899N, 15363, 15787
Hap5021574 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:539, 1185, 7999, 10084, 10535, 16429
Hap5021599 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:195, 204, 207, 310, 431A, 10861, 10966, 11084, 14384, 15440, 15769, 16051, 16175, 16287
Hap5021601 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:195, 204, 207, 431A, 10861, 10966, 11084, 14384, 15440, 15769, 16051, 16175, 16287
Hap5021604 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021618 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 9554, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021664 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:524.1AC, 789, 1193, 4310, 6275, 8994, 11284, 11864, 14013, 15481A
Hap5021667 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 9055, 9554, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021702 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:195, 204, 207, 431A, 10861, 10966, 11084, 14384, 15440, 15769, 16051, 16175, 16287
Hap5021723 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:15067 M28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 13386, 15067N
Hap5021757 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:789, 1193, 4310, 6275, 8994, 11284, 11864, 14013, 15481A
Hap5021790 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:16086 M28a:8756, 13246, 14122, 16265, 16320
Hap5021791 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:8756, 13246, 14122, 16320
Hap5021795 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:16086 M28a:8756, 13246, 14122
Hap5021806 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:16189 M28a:789, 4167, 4310, 6257, 6275, 7424, 13386, 15481A
Hap5021859 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:198, 204, 207, 310, 431A, 524.1AC, 4135, 8776, 8825, 9590, 11084, 13803, 14248, 14861, 16051
Hap5021903 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:8756, 13246, 14122, 16320
Hap5021921 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:204, 5063, 6278, 7145, 10691, 16261
Hap5021929 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:204, 5063, 7145, 9909, 10691, 16261
Hap5021930 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:204, 5063, 6278, 7145, 10691, 16261
Hap5021932 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:203, 204, 5063, 7145, 7873, 10691, 16261
Hap5021933 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:204, 5063, 7145, 7873, 10691, 16261
Hap5021934 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:204, 5063, 7145, 7873, 10691, 16261
Hap5021943 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:204, 524.1AC, 5063, 6278, 7145, 10691, 16261
Hap5021952 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:16362 M28a:152, 153, 524.1AC, 1185, 15217, 16429
Hap5021955 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:234, 524.1AC, 1185, 3651, 16429
Hap5021970 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16506
Hap5021974 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16506
Hap5021982 Duggan et al., 2014b M28a:13105 M28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16471
Hap5021983 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16471, 16506
Hap5021985 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:3565, 7775N, 8093, 16092N, 16320, 16471, 16506
Hap5022019 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:217N, 573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022020 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:3565, 8093, 16320, 16471, 16506
Hap5022021 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022023 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:524.1AC, 573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022025 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022029 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022036 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 8038, 9663, 16356, 16429
Hap5022037 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:524.1AC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022042 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16169N, 16429
Hap5022043 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:573.1XC, 574C, 1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022054 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 6266, 9663, 16429
Hap5022056 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:1185, 5249, 9663, 16429
Hap5022060 Duggan et al., 2014b none M28a:574C, 1185, 5249, 8038, 9663, 16356, 16429

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Country
Mother's
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Maternal
Origin

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am

Keywords

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