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Age: 38,561.0 ± 6,326.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: G3915A T5108C T7861C
Parent Branch: M21
Descendant branch(s): M21b1 M21b2


Haplogroup M21b is a branch on the maternal tree of humanity.

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

03M21c'd3915 5108 7861 16242Released 1 Mar 2009
04M21c'd3915 5108 7861 16242Released 10 May 2009
05M21c'd3915 5108 7861 16242Released 8 Jul 2009
06M21c'd3915 5108 16242Released 28 Sep 2009
07M21c'd3915 5108 16242Released 10 Nov 2009
08M21c'd3915 5108 16242Released 21 Mar 2010
09M21c'd3915 5108Released 20 Jun 2010
10M21c'd3915 5108Released 10 Aug 2010
11M21c'd3915 5108Released 7 Feb 2011
12M21c'd3915 5108Released 20 Jul 2011
13M21c'd3915 5108Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14M21c'dG3915A T5108CReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15M21c'dG3915A T5108CReleased 30 Sep 2012
16M21bG3915A T5108C T7861CReleased 19 Feb 2014
17M21bG3915A T5108C T7861CReleased 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5020698Zhang X et al., 2013M21b:146, 3915, 16129M21b:150, 210, 504, 1415, 6581, 8790, 9053, 9058, 9210, 9449, 10373, 12612, 12681

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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