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Age: 14,267.6 ± 6,182.4; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T146C! T5426C T5774C G7762A
Parent Branch: M2a
Descendant branch(s): M2a3a


Haplogroup M2a3 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 8,100 and 20,500 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 27 Aug 2008
02M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 14 Oct 2008
03M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 1 Mar 2009
04M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 10 May 2009
05M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 8 Jul 2009
06M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 28 Sep 2009
07M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 10 Nov 2009
08M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 21 Mar 2010
09M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 20 Jun 2010
10M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 10 Aug 2010
11M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 7 Feb 2011
12M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 20 Jul 2011
13M2a3146 5426 5774 7762Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14M2a3T146C! T5426C T5774C G7762AReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15M2a3T146C! T5426C T5774C G7762AReleased 30 Sep 2012
16M2a3T146C! T5426C T5774C G7762AReleased 19 Feb 2014
17M2a3T146C! T5426C T5774C G7762AReleased 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants
Hap5005886Chandrasekar et al., 2009noneM2a3:315.1C, 3337, 8812, 14155
Hap5005922Chandrasekar et al., 2009M2a3:16189, 16311M2a3:309.1C, 315.1C, 9055, 11167, 11260, 11353, 16261
Hap5015965Kumar et al., 2008noneM2a3:315.1C, 3337, 8812, 14155
Hap5016020Kumar et al., 2008M2a3:16189, 16311M2a3:309.1C, 315.1C, 9055, 11167, 11260, 16193.1C, 16261
Hap5019556Khan et al., 2014noneM2a3:309.1CC, 315.1C, 6377, 9022, 11778, 15115, 16391, 16519

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country
Hap10070143United KingdomSouth AfricaSouth AfricaSouth Africa

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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