Age: 1,090.2 ± 2,140.8; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: C16147T
Parent Branch: M2a1a3a
Descendant branch(s):


Haplogroup M2a1a3a1 is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. The woman who started this branch lived at some point between recent generations and 3,200 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History

Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

Build# Called Mutations Notes
07 M2a1a3a1 16147 Released 10 Nov 2009
08 M2a1a3a1 16147 Released 21 Mar 2010
09 M2a1a3a1 16147 Released 20 Jun 2010
10 M2a1a3a1 16147 Released 10 Aug 2010
11 M2a1a3a1 16147 Released 7 Feb 2011
12 M2a1a3a1 16147 Released 20 Jul 2011
13 M2a1a3a1 16147 Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14 M2a1a3a1 C16147T Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15 M2a1a3a1 C16147T Released 30 Sep 2012
16 M2a1a3a1 C16147T Released 19 Feb 2014
17 M2a1a3a1 C16147T Released 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Publication Missing Variants Additional Variants
Hap5005904 Chandrasekar et al., 2009 none M2a1a3a1:315.1C, 2361
Hap5015982 Kumar et al., 2008 none M2a1a3a1:315.1C
Hap5015984 Kumar et al., 2008 none M2a1a3a1:315.1C
Hap5016018 Kumar et al., 2008 none M2a1a3a1:315.1C, 15803

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg ID Birth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


Peoples: | Places:

-001-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 June 6th, 2016|