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Age: 26,020.6 ± 5,808.0; CI=95% (Behar et al., 2012b)
Origin: Undetermined
Mutations: T318C A12358G
Parent Branch: M12
Descendant branch(s): M12a1 M12a2


Haplogroup M12a is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Its age is between 20,200 and 31,800 years (Behar et al., 2012b).

Phylotree History is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.

01M12a318Released 27 Aug 2008
02M12a318Released 14 Oct 2008
03M12a318Released 1 Mar 2009
04M12a318Released 10 May 2009
05M12a318Released 8 Jul 2009
07M12a125 127 (128) 12358Released 10 Nov 2009
08M12a125 127 (128) 12358Released 21 Mar 2010
09M12a125 127 (128) 12358Released 20 Jun 2010
10M12a125 127 (128) 12358Released 10 Aug 2010
11M12a125 127 (128) 12358Released 7 Feb 2011
12M12a318 12358Released 20 Jul 2011
13M12a318 12358Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS
14M12aT318C A12358GReleased 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS
15M12aT318C A12358GReleased 30 Sep 2012
16M12aT318C A12358GReleased 19 Feb 2014
17M12aT318C A12358GReleased 18 Feb 2016

GenBank Samples

GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.

Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDPublicationMissing VariantsAdditional Variants

Geno 2.0 Data

Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.

Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.

Hg IDBirth
Birth Country
Maternal Grandmother's
Birth Country

If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.

Related Sources

Additional Resources

mtDNA Consultants

The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.

Last Updated: Last updated: November 30, -0001 at 0:00 am


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