Haplogroup L3d1b is a branch on the maternal tree of human kind. Born between 15,700 and 24,100 years ago (Behar et al., 2012b), the woman who founded this lineage likely lived in East Africa. From there her descendants migrated to West Africa between 12,000 and 10,000 during the Holocene Climate Optimum (Barbieri et al., 2012a).
There are two published studies with members of this line. The first found a member in the Dominican Republic (Kivisild et al., 2006). The second study found the lineage in two Mande language speaking groups. These were a population in South Samo, Burkina Faso and a population of Mandenka from Senegal. (Barbieri et al., 2012a) There is also one citizen science donated sample from the genetic genealogy community, but it does not have demographic information (Behar et al., 2008b).
From the Geno 2 data set, there are two Caribbean participants. One is from Cuba and the other is from Puerto Rico.
Available information then links this branch with both early migrations across Africa and later participation in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade from West Africa to the Caribbean.
Phylotree.org is the maternal (mtDNA) tree of humanity. It is maintained by Dr. Mannis Van Oven. Each build is a major update to the tree. The current build is #17.
|01||L3d1b||5046||Released 27 Aug 2008|
|02||L3d1b||5046||Released 14 Oct 2008|
|03||L3d1b||5046||Released 1 Mar 2009|
|04||L3d1b||5046||Released 10 May 2009|
|05||L3d1b||5046||Released 8 Jul 2009|
|06||L3d1b||5046||Released 28 Sep 2009|
|07||L3d1b||5046||Released 10 Nov 2009|
|08||L3d1b||5046||Released 21 Mar 2010|
|09||L3d1b||5046||Released 20 Jun 2010|
|10||L3d1b||5046||Released 10 Aug 2010|
|11||L3d1b||5046||Released 7 Feb 2011|
|12||L3d1b||5046||Released 20 Jul 2011|
|13||L3d1b||5046||Released 28 Dec 2011; Last Build to use the rCRS|
|14||L3d1b||G5046A||Released 5 Apr 2012; First version to use the RSRS|
|15||L3d1b||G5046A||Released 30 Sep 2012|
|16||L3d1b||G5046A||Released 19 Feb 2014|
|17||L3d1b||G5046A||Released 18 Feb 2016|
GenBank is a database of genetic sequence data. It is run by the United States National Institute of Health. It serves as the main repository for mtDNA full sequence profiles. Samples come both from published academic literature and donations from genetic genealogy community members. In addition to GenBank samples, listings below may include other samples published but not submitted to GenBank such as those from the HapMap project.
Note: GenBank results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hg ID||Publication||Missing Variants||Additional Variants|
|Hap5000672||Behar et al., 2008b||L3d1b:16124||L3d1b:151, 309.1C, 315.1C, 523-524d, 2308, 3106N, 5036, 5894C, 5899.1XC, 6980, 11194, 13708, 15530, 15748, 16519|
|Hap5010814||Kivisild et al., 2006||L3d1b:146, 195, 247, 16124, 16129, 16187, 16189, 16230, 16278, 16311||L3d1b:1-435d, 523-524d, 5246, 5605, 6842, 16022-16569d|
|Hap5018764||Barbieri et al., 2012a||L3d1b:7424||L3d1b:315.1C, 523-524d, 2903, 6266N, 6272N, 7424N, 9647, 10646, 16256, 16294, 16519|
|Hap5018817||Barbieri et al., 2012a||L3d1b:195||L3d1b:315.1C, 523-524d, 6119, 10398, 13899, 14110, 14311, 16390, 16519|
Geno 2.0 Data
Data from Geno 2.0 is derived from the The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project — the DAR. The Hg ID is specific to this site and is used to protect the identities of those who take part in Genographic research. Birth Country, Mother's Birth Country, and Maternal Grandmother's Birth Country have been normalized from DAR database fields. The Maternal Origin is determined based on the three previous fields.
Note: Geno 2.0 results currently use Phylotree build 16. I am working on changing resuts over to build 17.
|Hap10068849||United States||Puerto Rico||Unspecified||Puerto Rico|
If you use the information in this table, please credit both this site and The National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project.
- Barbieri, C., Whitten, M., Beyer, K., Schreiber, H., Li, M. and Pakendorf, B. (2012). Contrasting maternal and paternal histories in the linguistic context of Burkina Faso. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(4), 1213-1223.
- Behar, Doron M.; Villems, Richard; Soodyall, Himla; Blue-Smith, Jason; Pereira, Luisa; Metspalu, Ene; Scozzari, Rosaria; Makkan, Heeran; Tzur, Shay; Comas, David; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Wells, R. Spencer & Rosset, (2008). The Dawn of Human Matrilineal Diversity. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(5), 1130-1140.
- Behar, D.M., van Oven, M., Rosset, S., Metspalu, M., Loogväli, E.L., Silva, N.M., Kivisild, T., Torroni, A. and Villems, R. (2012). A “Copernican” reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(4), 675-684.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2011). MitoTool: a web server for the analysis and retrieval of human mitochondrial DNA sequence variations. Mitochondrion, 11(2), 351-356.
- Fan, L., & Yao, Y. G. (2013). An update to MitoTool: using a new scoring system for faster mtDNA haplogroup determination. Mitochondrion, 13(4), 360-363.
- Kivisild, Toomas; Shen, Peidong; Wall, Dennis P.; Do, Bao; Sung, Raphael; Davis, Karen; Passarino, Giuseppe; Underhill, Peter A.; Scharfe, Curt; Torroni, Antonio; Scozzari, Rosaria; Modiano, David; Coppa, Alfredo; de Knijff, Peter; Feldman, Marcus; Cavall (2006). The Role of Selection in the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial Genomes. Genetics, 172(1), 373-387.
- Van Oven, M., & Kayser, M. (2009). Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation. Human mutation, 30(2), E386-E394.
- Ian Logan's mtDNA Pages
- Ian Logan's Instructions for mtGenome Genbank Donation
- James Lick's mtDNA Utility
- The FTDNA Haplogroup Project for Haplogroup L3
- The Wikipedia Article for Haplogroup L3
The following members of the community offer paid consulting for those seeking help with mtDNA results. Inclusion on this list is not a recommendation or endorsement of any service.
Last updated: September 8, 2016 at 14:36 pm
Peoples: Burkina Faso, Mande language speaking groups, and South Samo | Places: Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Africa, Puerto Rico, and West Africa