//Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports

Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports

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Articles of Interest

Ancient maternal lineages in hunter-gatherer groups of Argentinean Patagonia. Settlement, population continuity and divergence

Journal: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports | Year: 2017

Abstract:

First Patagonian occupation moments have been estimated, through the study of different archaeological sites, between 18,500–14,500 cal BP. There is consensus that Patagonian populations had a hunter-gatherer organization until European contact, featuring low demography, different levels of mobility and in some regions relative geographic isolation. Both archaeological and bioanthropological hypothesis suggest a common population origin for the region, and point that their biological differences would stem from genetic drift, geographic isolation and adaptation to the environment. In this study we analyze HVR-1 mitochondrial sequences from 70 ancient and 306 extant samples from native groups with the aim to test these hypotheses. We observe a southward diversity decrease and a significant genetic differentiation between northern, southern and insular Patagonian groups. In addition, phylogenetic tests indicate a common origin for all populations, despite divergence events that may have occurred in each analyzed region. In particular some haplotypes found in Northern Patagonia suggest the existence of genetic flow from central Argentina and Chile.

Peoples: Native Americans | Places: Argentinean Patagonia | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

Additional analysis of mtDNA from the Tommy and Mine Canyon sites

Journal: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Ancient mitochondrial DNA analysis of samples from the Chaco outlier Tommy and Mine Canyon sites (dating to PII and PIII, respectively, and located near Farmington, New Mexico) originally revealed distinctly different haplogroup frequency distributions from one another. An additional twelve samples were added to those already published (Snow et al., 2010), bringing the total number of individuals with mitochondrial DNA data to 60. The additional samples diminished this difference but maintained the statistically significant distinction between the sites, pointing to a potential sampling bias at the Mine Canyon Site that might explain some, but not all, of the difference. The sites were compared with those from both modern and prehistoric populations in the desert Southwest and Mexico to better understand the regional context of the inhabitants, as well as inter-regional relationships, demonstrating that the Tommy Site fits well within the general Southwestern pattern, while the Mine Canyon Site stands out due to its higher than normal frequency of haplogroup A2. Thirteen burials from a kiva structure at the Mine Canyon Site are compared to the remainder of the excavated burials from the site in terms of mtDNA, burial position, pathology, and grave goods. The statistically significant differences of the kiva burials are discussed in terms of possible evidence of site abandonment, disease, slavery, and witchcraft.

Peoples: Native Americans | Places: Mine Canyon Site, North America Southwest, and Tommy Site | Topics: disease, site abandonment, slavery, and witchcraft | DNA Type: Ancient DNA and mtDNA

Y-chromosomal DNA analyzed for four prehistoric cemeteries from Cis-Baikal, Siberia

Journal: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports | Year: 2016

Abstract:

The Lake Baikal region of Siberia was home to two temporally distinct populations from Early Neolithic, EN (7500–7000 cal BP) to Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age, LN-EBA (5570–3725 cal BP). The EN group was separated from the LN-EBA group by a ~ 1500-year gap (hiatus), and during this hiatus no human remains have been recovered from the Lake Baikal area. Examination of the paternal lineage through Y-chromosomal polymorphisms is a novel approach to BAP and will facilitate the assessment of the paternal continuities and/or discontinuities within and between the EN and the LN-EBA groups, and complement the previously examined maternal data. Several new ancient DNA extraction and PCR amplification techniques were optimized to address the technical challenges during sample analysis. Each sample was extracted twice in duplicate on different occasions to authenticate the results. Thirteen Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers were examined via the SNaPshot multiplex PCR reaction to determine Y-chromosomal haplogroups of males. Results have been obtained from 16 males from the EN cemeteries Lokomotiv and Shamanka II representing haplogroups K, R1a1 and C3, and 20 males from the LN-EBA Ust'-Ida and Kurma XI cemeteries representing haplogroups Q, K and unidentified SNP (L914). For those males belonging to haplogroup Q, further experiments were obtained to examine sub-haplogroups of Q, and the results showed that those males belong to sub-haplogroup Q1a3. The paternal Y-chromosome results suggest a discontinuity between the EN and LN-EBA populations. The significance of this research lies on the utility of DNA analysis in making inferences about the pre-historic social structure.

Peoples: | Places: Kurma XI cemeteries, Lake Baikal area, and Siberia | Topics: Ancient DNA, Haplogroups, mtDNA, Siberian population, Sub-haplogroups of Q, and Y-chromosome | DNA Type: Ancient DNA

2016-11-23T06:08:20+00:00 November 23rd, 2016|