//BMC Genetics

BMC Genetics

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Articles of Interest

Refining the South Asian Origin of the Romani people

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2017

Abstract:

Background
Recent genetic studies based on genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data further investigated the history of Roma and suggested that the source of South Asian ancestry in Roma originates most likely from the Northwest region of India.

Methods
In this study, based also on genome-wide SNP data, we attempted to refine these findings using significantly larger number of European Roma samples, an extended dataset of Indian groups and involving Pakistani groups into the analyses. Our Roma data contained 179 Roma samples. Our extended Indian data consisted of 51 distinct Indian ethnic groups, which provided us a higher resolution of the population living on the Indian subcontinent. We used in this study principal component analysis and other ancestry estimating methods for the study of population relationships, several formal tests of admixture and an improved algorithm for investigating shared IBD segments in order to investigate the main sources of Roma ancestry.

Results
According to our analyses, Roma showed significant IBD sharing of 0.132 Mb with Northwest Indian ethnic groups. The most significant IBD sharings included ethnic groups of Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat states. However, we found also significant IBD sharing of 0.087 Mb with ethnic groups living in Pakistan, such as Balochi, Brahui, Burusho, Kalash, Makrani, Pashtun and Sindhi.

Conclusion
Our results show that Northwest India could play an important role in the South Asian ancestry of Roma, however, the origin of Romani people might include the area of Pakistan as well.

Peoples: Roma | Places: Europe | Topics: | DNA Type: Autosomal DNA

Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2003

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Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

Major genomic mitochondrial lineages delineate early human expansions

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2001

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Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

Genetic affinities between the Yami tribe people of Orchid Island and the Philippine Islanders of the Batanes archipelago

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

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Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2009

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Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type: mtDNA

The impact of modern migrations on present-day multi-ethnic Argentina as recorded on the mitochondrial DNA genome

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Abstract:

Peoples: | Places: | Topics: | DNA Type:

Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2009

Abstract:

Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at high resolution using 67 Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotypic diversity for its most prominent J1-M267 lineage was estimated using a set of 17 Y-specific STR loci.RESULTS:Saudi Arabia differentiates from other Arabian Peninsula countries by a higher presence of J2-M172 lineages. It is significantly different from Yemen mainly due to a comparative reduction of sub-Saharan Africa E1-M123 and Levantine J1-M267 male lineages. Around 14% of the Saudi Arabia Y-chromosome pool is typical of African biogeographic ancestry, 17 arrived to the area from the East across Iran, while the remainder 69% could be considered of direct or indirect Levantine ascription. Interestingly, basal E-M96* (n = 2) and J-M304* (n = 3) lineages have been detected, for the first time, in the Arabian Peninsula. Coalescence time for the most prominent J1-M267 haplogroup in Saudi Arabia (11.6 +/- 1.9 ky) is similar to that obtained previously for Yemen (11.3 +/- 2) but significantly older that those estimated for Qatar (7.3 +/- 1.8) and UAE (6.8 +/- 1.5).CONCLUSION:The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The data confirm that this area has mainly been a recipient of gene flow from its African and Asian surrounding areas, probably mainly since the last Glacial maximum onwards. Although rare deep rooting lineages for Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J have been detected, the presence of more basal clades supportive of the southern exit route of modern humans to Eurasian, were not found.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: Y-DNA

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2008

Abstract:

Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations.RESULTS:We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data.CONCLUSION:Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: mtDNA

Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans

Journal: BMC Genetics | Year: 2004

Abstract:

Recent advances in the understanding of the maternal and paternal heritage of south and southwest Asian populations have highlighted their role in the colonization of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. Further understanding requires a deeper insight into the topology of the branches of the Indian mtDNA phylogenetic tree, which should be contextualized within the phylogeography of the neighboring regional mtDNA variation. Accordingly, we have analyzed mtDNA control and coding region variation in 796 Indian (including both tribal and caste populations from different parts of India) and 436 Iranian mtDNAs. The results were integrated and analyzed together with published data from South, Southeast Asia and West Eurasia.RESULTS:Four new Indian-specific haplogroup M sub-clades were defined. These, in combination with two previously described haplogroups, encompass approximately one third of the haplogroup M mtDNAs in India. Their phylogeography and spread among different linguistic phyla and social strata was investigated in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of the Iranian mtDNA pool revealed patterns of limited reciprocal gene flow between Iran and the Indian sub-continent and allowed the identification of different assemblies of shared mtDNA sub-clades.CONCLUSIONS:Since the initial peopling of South and West Asia by anatomically modern humans, when this region may well have provided the initial settlers who colonized much of the rest of Eurasia, the gene flow in and out of India of the maternally transmitted mtDNA has been surprisingly limited. Specifically, our analysis of the mtDNA haplogroups, which are shared between Indian and Iranian populations and exhibit coalescence ages corresponding to around the early Upper Paleolithic, indicates that they are present in India largely as Indian-specific sub-lineages. In contrast, other ancient Indian-specific variants of M and R are very rare outside the sub-continent.

Peoples: - | Places: - | Topics: - | DNA Type: mtDNA

2005-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 January 1st, 2005|